Basel Convention on control of trans-boundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal : It aims at preventing and minimising the generation of wastes including those ending up in ocean.It does not cover radioactive waste.(Not in My Backyard, Nimby syndrome)
Basel Ban Amendment:The Ban Amendment prohibits all export of hazardous wastes, including electronic wastes and obsolete ships from 29 wealthiest countries of the OECD to non-OECD countries.India have not ratified this amendment.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Legally Binding. Under UNEP. Total 30 POPsDirty Dozen: 12 POPs that are the most dangerous. It includes Dioxins
Rotterdam Convention on Hazardous chemicalsThe convention promotes open exchange of information and calls on exporters of hazardous chemicals to use proper labeling, include directions on safe handling, and inform purchasers of any known restrictions or bans. Created 'Prior Informed Consent' process.
Montreal Protocol - Ozone Depletion
Honolulu strategy — a framework for a comprehensive and global collaborative effort to reduce the ecological, human health, and economic impacts of marine debris worldwide.
“Colombo Declaration” Ambition to halve nitrogen waste by 2030. (Sustainable Nitrogen Management), UNEP.
The Nairobi Convention is a partnership between governments, civil society and the private sector, working towards a prosperous Western Indian Ocean Region with healthy rivers, coasts and oceans.
Minimata Convention on Mercury is an international treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds.
The 1999 Gothenburg ProtocolIt is a multi-pollutant protocol designed to reduce acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. The Protocol is part of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.
Convention on the conservation of migratory species of wild animals (CMS) (Bonn Convention)
- 13th COP @ Gandhinagar
- Under the aegis of UNEP.
- It provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats
- It brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States
- It lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range
- CMS is only global and UN-based intergovernmental organization established exclusively for conservation and management of terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range.
- India has signed a non-legally binding MoU with CMS on conservation and management of Siberian Cranes (1998), Marine Turtles (2007), Dugongs (2008), and Raptors (2016).
Classification of species
Appendix I: Migratory species threatened with extinction
Appendix II: Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international co-operation
COP 13 outcomes
- The Great Indian Bustard, Asian Elephant and Bengal Florican have been included in Appendix I of UN Convention on Migratory Species.