1. "The Stratification system in our society denotes the existence of inequality." Explain the statement by giving theoretical perspectives on it. 20
2. Establish a cause-effect relationship between poverty and social deprivation with suitable illustrations. 10
Model Structure 1.
● Definition of social stratification - categorisation of community into socio-economic strata.
● Categorisation on the basis of income, status and derived political power - Weber
○ Class inequality on the basis of control of forces of production - Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
○ The ruling class derives its power from ownership and control over the process of production thus exploits the have-nots and thus promotes hostility between them.
● FUNCTIONALIST APPROACH:
○ Talcott Parsons -
- Order and stability depends upon the value consensus in the society
- Individuals who conduct themselves in accordance with these values are ranked above others.
- Certain positions are functionally more important in the society than others
- This inequality in the position leads to inequality in distribution of power and prestige
- EXAMPLES from current affairs for novelty
○ Kinsley Davis and Wilbert Moore -
- Unequal distribution rights and prerequisites making for social inequality provides the motivation to people to perform duties associated with a given position and to achieve that supports more prestige and esteem.
- The most important positions are filled by the most qualified persons.
- They undergo particular training and sacrifice to achieve those position and in reward may seek differential prestige respect to others
- Thus stratification is both positively functional and inevitable in the society ■ Examples from current affairs.
● Anthony giddens suggests that if the rate of social mobility is low class solidarity and cohesion will be high most individuals will remain in their class of origin and this will provide the reproduction of common life experience for generation
● Hence equality of opportunity should take the place of permanent inequalities for the well functioning of society.
Model Structure 2.
● Define poverty
● Poverty - lack of access to basic material needs.
● Deprivation - Inequality in access to Social goods
● Low income → could not afford quality of goods in terms of housing, education, housing etc.
● Thus, poverty led to deprivation.
○ E.g Dalits in India - majority poor - also poor in social indicators (education level, low in formal employment) - you can give some data
○ Blacks in the USA - relatively poorer than whites - have very low representation in politics, universities.
○ Rural poors are deprived of the economic and political opportunities.
● Also, deprivation could result in poverty as well
○ Lack of social capital led to low awareness of opportunities, employment → Poverty
○ Poor upbringings in Afro-American homes - Blacks often have low-cost labour, facing discriminative pay etc.
○ Identity-less migrant labourers often been poor - low bargaining power.
● Global level
○ Countries categorized as rich/poor lead to the type of treatment their citizens get.
○ Africans often face discrimination, socially deprived in India
● Thus, poverty and social deprivation drives each other, a vicious cycle in work
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