Sociology Daily Answer Writing (03-01-2023)


  1. Distinguish between secularism and secularization. Analyze the nature and extent of secularization in contemporary India.        20
  2. Online Education, though functional for the education revolution, has many social dysfunctionalities.           10

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Model Solutions

Q1. Distinguish between secularism and secularization. Analyze the nature and extent of secularization in contemporary India. 20

Model Structure


  • Iis an ideology based on the idea of separation of State from Church (Religion).
  • Along with State and laws, other areas such as economy, education, social life etc. are also separated from religion.
  • Secularism as an ideology is not anti-religious. Secularism can be classified as-
    • State centric secularism: In this type, the state is neutral to all religions.
    • India centric secularism: It is based on the idea that all the religions are equal in the eyes of state and the state is equidistant from all the religions.


  • Bryan Wilson defines secularization as ‘the process whereby religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance.’
  • The process has been conceptualized and measured in following aspects-
    • Institutional religion-participation: Wilson argues that decline in organised religious participation indicates a way in which churches are losing direct influence over the ideas and activities of man. In contemporary India, such participation is declining in today’s fast and busy life. However, most of the people still visit religious places at regular intervals, if not so frequently.
    • Disengagement and differentiation: There is disengagement of religious organizations from wider society. Education, social life, welfare etc have been associated with secular organizations in present times. This pattern is quite visible in contemporary Indian society as well. However, religious beliefs still give meaning and significance to life.
    • Religious pluralism: The development of a number of sects and denominations have been viewed as an example of secularization. There are some scholars who view this as a decrease in importance of one faith and one church. However, other scholars hold the opinion that such multiplicity of sects actually denotes increasing religiosity.
      • This phenomenon is visible in Indian society as well. For example- Radha Soami, Nirankaris etc.
    • Secularization of religious institutions: At present, the participation in religious institutions is directed more by secular concerns rather than religious concerns. This represents secularization of society. It is visible in Indian society as well.
    • Decreasing significance of religion on different aspects of life. Eg. Marriage rites getting replaced by legal marriages.


  • However, this does not mean that religion has lost its importance. It still remains a critical force. Indian as a State is secular and the society is undergoing secularization but people in India are religious.

Q2. Online Education, though functional for the education revolution, has many social dysfunctionalities. 10

Model Structure

  • Define Online Education
  • Also mention how the concept emerged amidst Covid19

Main Body

Functions of online education:

  1. Women empowerment (through digitized instrumentation they can get the opportunity)
  2. Breakdown of gender stereotypes ( bcz technology is gender neutral)
  3. Balance inequalities between age groups.
  4. Socialization is intact even amidst Covid19

Dysfunctions of online education:

  1. Digital divide (with existing digital divide expanding online education will push the digital have-nots to the periphery of the education system + development of divided society) Conflict perspective: this type of inequality lead to learning disparities that reinforce social inequality
  2. Mechanization of digital dependence( increasing digital adoption)
  3. Widening the gender gap (internet and mobile association of india report 2019 find 67% men had access to internet while women internet access rate is 33%)
  4. New class of information elite (expansion of technology will create new class of elite which will be unreachable to the information poor)
  5. It is more likey to produce social isolation than connectivity (unable to produce legitimate social bonding)
  6. Emergence of new society (virtual community:who are " together through isolation + new kind of social habitation)
  7. Changes in family functions (in nuclear families parents might have to miss work to take care of their children)
  8. Financial backwardness of the students (large marginalized section of the society still can't afford digital equipments)
  9. Internet exposure puts children at the risk of "online sexual exploitation and grooming)
  10. Lack of social interactions and focus deficit (among the peer groups and teacher)

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