- Explain the research of Human Relation School on the social organisation of the work. 20
- Elaborate on the Pluralist thesis of power. 10
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1. Explain the research of Human Relation School on the social organisation of the work. 20
- Research by Elton Mayo at the General Electric Company in Chicago which was named by him as a Hawthorne experiment concluded that group relationship and management worker communication is far more important in determining behaviour than physical condition.
- Employee behaviour depends primarily on the social organisational circumstances of work. Leadership style, group cohesion and job satisfaction are major determinants.
- Employees work better if they are given tasks
- Standard set internally by working group influence more than by management
- Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation but to be seen as members of a group.
- Monetary incentives and good working conditions are less important than belonging to a group.
- Managers must be aware of the social needs of the employees and thus employees will collaborate with the official organisation rather than work against it.
- Study lacks scientific base
- Sample size was very small
- Employees were under observation might impact their behaviour
- Human relations school approach and four sizes more on social conditions inside as well as outside the organisation
- Thus to establish emotional bonds with employees, today organisations arrange cultural festivals on lines of human relation schools suggestions.
2. Elaborate on the Pluralist thesis of power. 10
- Pluralist theory centres on the idea of how power is distributed. The pluralist model indicates that power is distributed among many groups. These groups may include coalitions of like-minded people, unions, professional associations and business lobbyists.
- The percentages of average people that make up these groups are small, so in theory, the public acts as bystanders in the pluralist model of power.
- The pluralists believe that:
- Power is dispersed and fragmented.
- Groups provide a more effective means of representation.
- The larger the group the more influence it will have.
- Policies are established through bargaining and compromise and tend to be fair to all in the end.
- The Pluralist Model: Types of Groups - There are two types of groups within the pluralist model: insider groups, which tend to be more powerful, and outsider groups.
- Insider groups are well established and are able to work closely with the elected officials in government because of their position or prestige within the community. Examples - business groups that concentrate their efforts on issues directly affecting business interests (in the U.S., the American Petroleum Institute works on behalf of all oil companies, as an example.), Labour groups that promote policies that benefit workers in general and union members in particular (United Food and Commercial Workers International in the U.S. is an example), Agricultural groups that consist of general and specialty farm associations. Etc.
- Outsider groups are viewed as less powerful. Typically, members of outsider groups have less access to elected government officials. Their groups are more recently established which could be a sign of weakness. Example - Grassroots activism that may hold marches and rallies to bring attention or action for their cause. Political Action Committees (PACs) that filter money to support specific candidates for office.
- Neglecting the Inequality which exists in society.
- Deviance - Non conformity - Merton.
- The pluralist model revolves around the theory that power is equally dispersed among the social groups.