- What is new in the new social movement? Elaborate your answer with special reference to India. 20
- Write a short note on Anti-Brahmanical movements during the colonial period. 20
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Q1. What is new in the new social movement? Elaborate your answer with special reference to India. 20
Social movements are sustained collective mobilization to resist or bring social change in society. Social movements are categorized in Old and New Social movements based on following parameters:
- Organizational goal.
- Ideology of movement.
- Method of struggle/action.
- Social constituency.
The term new social movements (NSMs) is a theory of social movements that attempts to explain the plethora of new movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s (i.e. in a post-industrial economy) which are claimed to depart significantly from the conventional social movement paradigm.
New in new social movement:
- Old social movements were based on Marxist ideology which intended to destroy the existing system and questioned authority of state. New social movement never wants to abolish the state. For ex-
- New social movement is inspired by post materialism and is more interested in quality of life. Earlier movements were interested in subsistence needs. For example- ecological movements like Save the Bhagirathiin India.
- New social movements are cross country movements while Old social movements are generally confined within state boundaries. For ex- Farmer movement in India falls under Old social movement but Human rights movement (Against AFSPA) is cross country movement.
- In the old social movement, beneficiaries are participants. In the New social movement, beneficiaries are merely sympathizers and they provide moral and monetary support. Movement is carried out by activists.
- Social constituency of Old social movements is mainly proletariats but in the New social movement, participants are middle class.
- New social movement has sustained a source of finance. Even the government supports such movements. Old social movements were constrained in terms of resources.
The new social movement shows dissatisfaction with the predominantly Marxist view that treats social movements as reflecting a fundamental struggle among classes organized around economic production. They can be interpreted as struggles against the social inequalities, the dominance of the mass media, and other features of post industrial capitalism and the welfare state.
Q2. Write a short note on Anti-Brahmanical movements during the colonial period. 20
- Anti-Brahminism or Anti-Manuvaad is the ideology of being opposed or expressing hostility towards the Brahminism, who are the priestly caste in Hinduism and traditionally the highest ranked social caste. Anti-Brahminism can manifest itself as the hatred, prejudice, or discrimination directed against Brahmins.
Anti-Brahmanical movements during the colonial period were:
- Dalit movement: In the traditional caste system, the lowest castes were at the bottom of the social ladder. They were subjected to various caste disabilities. The downtrodden Dalits raised various struggles to fight their social exploitation in all forms. Mahar movement, Ambedkar's advocacy etc were directed against Brahminism.
SATYA Shodak samaj: Mahatma Jyotiba Phule formed the Sayta Shodak Mandal in 1873 with the aim of liberating non-Brahmins from the clutches of Brahmanism. They totally rejected the Vedic tradition and the Aryan heritage. He regarded the Aryans as conquerors and destroyers of the indigenous non-Aryan culture. He launched a vigorous attack on the Vedas. He made fun of the puranas and ridiculed those who believed in the absurd stories narrated by their Brahmin authors.
DRAVIDA KAZHAGAM MOVEMENT: It was based on the rejection of the Brahmanical Aryan religion and culture. The DK movement in Tamil Nadu idealized the Dravidian culture and religion and attacked the Aryan culture and religion. The self-respect movement started by Ramaswamy Naickar advocated that his followers should have their own priests. The movement drew its support from low castes. Its leaders worked hard to escape the tyranny of the Brahmins and to extol the virtues of the Dravidian culture.
- SNDP movement: It pertains to the Ezhavas of Kerala who were untouchables. The ideology of the movement was formulated by Sri Narayana Guru Swami. He gave them a new religion of one God and one caste which transformed their life>set of religious institutions parallel to that of the variety of Brahmanical Hinduism.
- Thus, Anti-Brahmanical movements during the colonial period attacked Brahmanic supremacy and all privileges granted to them. It intended to reform the society and generate self respect to those who were oppressed by caste hierarchy.