Sociology Daily Answer Writing (15-11-2022)

Socio Daily Writing

Questions

  1. Write a short note on Srinivas’s conception of functionalism.    10
  2. Do you think that a lot has changed from Desai’s comprehensive and systematic account of the genesis of Indian nationalism and national consciousness?   20

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Model Solutions

1. Write a short note on Srinivas’s conception of functionalism. 10

Model Structure
Introduction

  • Define Functionalism

Main Body

  • Srinivas pioneered structural functionalism in India through his work on Coorgs of Mysore (1940s). He initiated the tradition of macro-sociological generalization of micro-anthropological insights.
  • His approach is blend of -
    • Structural Functionalism of Robert Brown
    • Anthropological view of Pritchard
  • Attempt to develop an interpretation of particular social phenomenon like caste in Functional terms in larger social context
  • Challenged the then prevailing dominant paradigm which focused on understanding Indian society from purely textual point of view
  • Coorg study - holistic study - understanding it via field view
  • In 1976 Rampura Study -- Explained Social Functionalism + Dynamic nature of caste
  • Focused on Unity
    • In the study of Rampura Village, he concluded – the village is a ‘vertical unity’ of many castes. (Jajmani system)
    • In his study of Coorgs, he describes functional unity of castes by explaining the interaction in ritual context of different castes.
    • Horizontal unity in castes – extended beyond the village.
  • Critique:
    • Ignored structural change.
    • Over-emphasis on solidarity, status-quoist approach
    • This perspective ignored conflict in Indian society (Marxist)
    • Srinivas is often criticised for upholding upper caste values through his concept of dominant caste and sanskritization.

2. Do you think that a lot has changed from Desai’s comprehensive and systematic account of the genesis of Indian nationalism and national consciousness? 20

Model Structure
Introduction

  • The growth of Indian nationalism as an outcome of struggle against British rule which systematically alienated and exploited people.
    Main Body
  • Explain the stages of Indian nationalism (5 stages)
    • 1st SRM - 1885: Intelligentsia out of western education; Very Narrow base
    • 2nd 1885 - 1905: Rise of INC, Bourgeoise
    • 3rd 1905 - 1918: Wider social basis as Gandhi enters
    • 4th 1918 - 1934: MASS basis; Direct action; Working class, youth enters
    • 5th 1934-39: Rapid Changes; peasant, communist growth; Rise of national consciousness
  • As earlier, still middle class - carrier of national consciousness in Society E.g. 2011 Corruption movement against Govt
  • Role of charismatic leaders - still commanding influence in Indian polity
  • Modern education and ideas make disadvantageous groups aware.
    • More assertive now
    • Yet few social groups use their social capital to consolidate their position
    • As Yogendra Singh mentions- both continuity and change occur
  • Economic contradictions
    • So high as inequalities are way high.
      • Still unequal control over FoP
    • Labour movements and marginalized class movement
  • Global events still have an impact on the psyche of Indians. E.g.: America’s protectionism
  • Religious nationalism is rising, which disrupts the social fabric.

Conclusion

  • Relevance of Desai’s perspective

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