Sociology Daily Answer Writing (20-12-2022)


  1. Write a short note on Formalisation and Informalisation of labour force.  10
  2. What are the characteristics of new social movements?    10

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Model Solutions

Q1. Write a short note on Formalisation and Informalisation of labour force. 10

Model Framework:

  • Define the characteristics of Informal Labour force - low skills, low paid employment, easy entry, immigrant labour etc
  • However evidence of such progress is not seen, moreover the informal labour force itself is getting characterised into formal one.

Main Body:

  • Informal sector works in closed-circuit with formal - dependence of the latter one on the former.
  • Organised sector itself is getting informalised through contractualization, actualization and outsourcing of labour. There are workers who are equally or more educated and skilled, work better and even longer in so many of the organised sectors, for example electricians, AC servicemen, cleaners, though they work in the formal sector they do not get any social benefits as formal employees.
  • Role of globalisation and reorganization of production change led to a situation where production systems are becoming increasingly non-standard and flexible, which is engaged in temporary and part time employment. For example - recent labour reports show that there is increasing working from home at higher levels of professional suffering from and seasonality of work and lack of social security benefits as the work on short term contracts.
  • These flexible workers in new informal economy are vulnerable in terms of job security and social protections
  • They fail to derive any of the social protection measures calculated in the existing labour legislation
  • Formalisation of informal sector
    • New Labour Codes giving basic rights and social security to labourers in the informal sector
    • Companies like Zomato extending the formal benefits to gig workers


  • Therefore the informal labour force is not only working in the informal sector but under the very ages of the formal sector also.
  • Gig economy

Q2. What are the characteristics of new social movements? 10

Model Framework

  • Explain why new social movements are called new
  • French Sociologist Alain Touraine coined the term

Main Body

  • New social movement theory emerged in the 1970s to explain the proliferation of post-industrial, quality-of-life movements that are difficult to analyse using traditional social movement theories
  • Characteristics:
    • Rather than being based on the grievances of particular groups striving to influence political outcomes or redistribute material resources, new social movements (NSMs) like the peace and disarmament, environmental, and feminist movements focus on goals of autonomy, identity, self-realization, and quality-of-life issues.
    • The appeal of the new social movements also tends to cut across traditional class, party politics, and socioeconomic affiliations to politicize aspects of everyday life traditionally seen as outside politics.
    • Habermas: NSM are the new politics which are about quality of life, individual self-realisation and human rights.
    • Frank Parkin (Middle Class Radicalism): NSM are of middle class rather than of lower class
    • Members of different ideologies get together for a common cause (eg. Anti-corruption movements)
    • NSM are primarily cultural and social, secondarily political
    • Use of modern means to protest. Eg. Social media
    • Can cut across national boundaries. Eg. MeToo
    • Rejection of formal bureaucratic structure
    • Informal in nature (loosely organised)
      • No central leadership
      • Eg. Maratha Agitations
    • Manifestation of participative democracy
    • They don’t seek to acquire political power
    • They have post-materialistic values


  • Robin Cohen and Shirin Rai say that NSM are means of emancipatory politics. It is not identity politics but life politics

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