- Analyse the different views on integration and autonomy of tribes in India? 20
- Who are PVTGs? How are they identified? Elucidate on the geographical distribution of PVTGs. 10
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1. Analyse the different views on integration and autonomy of tribes in India? 20
- The approaches to tackling tribal problems in India are torn between policies of autonomy, assimilation and integration.
- The tribal population has generally remained aloof from the mainstream society in the past. They have their own social, political and economic setup that is not integrated with that of the larger society. The British government always adopted a practice of isolation of Indian tribes to gratify their self-interest of resource extraction and consolidation of British rule.
- After independence, following views were propounded regarding tribal policy:
- The policy of Isolation/ autonomy: It was advocated by Verrier Elwyn, who favoured isolation of tribes from the mainstream society. He was of the opinion that Indian tribes should be preserved and no external influence should be made on them. His policy was of isolating tribes and preserving culture. The idea was that by barring the entry of outsiders, the exploitation of tribals and the death of their culture by interaction with the larger society can be prevented. The constitution framers sought to maintain this autonomy through the fifth and sixth schedules of the constitution.
- The policy of assimilation: GS Ghurye has criticized the constitution makers for the provisions of autonomy that were included in the constitution. According to him, it works against national integration and would fuel secessionism. Ghurye considered tribals as backward Hindus as, though they internalized the rites and rituals of Hindu society they were yet to internalize the Hindu epistemology like Karma, Samsara and Moksha. According to him, tribal and Hindu cultures have undergone cultural fusion. Tribal Gods like Kali and Shiva are worshipped by mainstream Hindus while the tribals have adopted many Hindu rites and rituals. Ghurye favoured the gradual assimilation of tribes with the Hindu society; he considered it beneficial for national integration as well.
- The policy of integration: According to Hutton, tribes have a distinct culture and their interest should be protected while integrating them in the mainstream. Nehru adopted a policy of integration of tribals with the mainstream aiming at developing a creative adjustment between the tribes and non-tribes leading to a responsible partnership. By adopting the policy of integration or progressive acculturation the Government has laid the foundation for the uninhibited march of the tribals towards equality, upward mobility, and economic viability and assured proximity to the national mainstream. The constitution has committed the nation to two courses of action in respect of scheduled tribes, viz
- Giving protection to their distinctive way of life. Protecting them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation and discrimination and
- Bringing them at par with the rest of the nation so that they may be integrated with the national life.
- However, the Xaxa committee advocated that despite several protections, tribes are devoid of their basic rights and further autonomy through substantive democratic decentralization is required.
2. Who are PVTGs? How are they identified? Elucidate on the geographical distribution of PVTGs. 10
- Define PVTGs
- Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups
- Few tribal groups - identified as such after Dhebar commission
- Small but homogenous population
- Living in far-off, unreachable areas (physically isolated)
- Food gatherers, hunters,
- Absence of written language,
- Low literacy
- Relatively simple technology,
- Economic backwardness, subsistence economy,
- Declining or stagnant population and
- a slower rate of change etc
- Total - 75 identified PVTG groups
- 18 states & 1 UT
- Odisha (13); Andhra (12); Bihar (9); MP (7); TN (6); Kerala (5); A&N (5)
- Draw Map -- and mark the concentrated PVTG areas
- The Ministry of Tribal Affairs implements the Scheme of “Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)” exclusively for them.
- What needs to be done
- Complete baseline surveys (45/75 only completed)
- Repeal Habitual offenders act
- JibanSampark Project Odisha - Creating awareness among PVTG on various development initiatives of State
- 2019 Govt approved scheme of “Development of PVTGs” - states to give Conservation come development plans