- Write Short Note: Women and temple entry movements. 10
- Has the Green Revolution led to the creation of pressure groups in India? Elaborate your views. 20
Want to get your daily answers evaluated?
Q1. Write Short Note: Women and temple entry movements. 10
- Provide a general introduction about temple entry movements
- Temple entry movements have been an important facet of socio-religious reform movements even in early 19th century
- The temple entry movements of yester years focused on ameliorating caste-based discrimination
- In the current era, temple entry movements are seen from a gendered and feminist perspective
- Women face double repression of caste and gender when it comes to factors prohibiting their entry into temples
- From Durkheimian point of view, women are seen within the ambit of ‘profane’ rather than ‘sacred’ when they are barred from entering temples
- This is because of the concept of ‘purity and pollution’ wherein menstruation is seen as ‘impure’
- Supreme Court also opined on the same lines when it invoked the right against untouchability
- This view of ‘impurity’ comes from patriarchal domination of religion – Marxist perspective
- Though new laws condoning women’s temple entry have come into force, societal morality is different from that of constitutional morality
- That is to say, the mores are not matching the laws
- Contemporary examples: Sabarimala, Shani shingnapur etc.
Q2. Has the Green Revolution led to the creation of pressure groups in India? Elaborate your views. 20
- Provide an introduction on Green Revolution (GR)
- After 1965-HYV-irrigation-fertilizers-self-sufficient in food grain production- social ethnic and political effect.
- 2 stages-first stage Punjab Haryana western UP- 2nd stage South and western India
- Norman Borlaug- M S Swaminathan- wonder wheat Mexico-Punjab and Haryana 200 times production
- GR and power and politics- developed political aspiration-political parties-rich farmers enter into politics- served interests of rich farmers through cooperatives.
- GR and ethnic distinction between Punjabi farmers and non-Punjabi farmers- poor farmers and rich farmers’ conflict.
- Changes taking place in one sector leads to change in other sectors also- GR has influenced local politics-stratification-gender status-ethnicity- inter caste relationship- regional identities- migration.
- Gail Omvedt- strong nexus between caste and class- caste conflict is also class conflict.
- AR Desai- land reforms not successful- benami transfers in the name of cooperative farming- landlords holding tenants in unofficial contracts-so they can’t take legal route- they don’t enjoy their rights.
- Southern states- benefits of agriculture pocketed by rich farmers-low level technology use-lower caste people as Agri labour- low intensive capitalist region.
- Punjab and Haryana-tenancy system absent- hired labour- production as per market demands- farmers are highly unionized-caste and landownership relationship is absent- class consolidation high- intensive capitalist agriculture.
- Multiple modes of production-60% are still landless- marginal farmers come from Dalit and Tribal origin- 16% agriculturists are from dominant castes- Jats,Yadavs,Bhomiars,Lingayats,Rajputs and Reddys etc. Rest from artisan caste-small holdings.
- Due to the above reasons, pressure group activity is seen in the form of-
- Dominant castes & resultant pressure groups: Patel agitation and Jat agitation for demand of reservation
- Pressure groups to demand farm loan waivers
- Pressure groups to demand free electricity for irrigation
- Pressure groups to lobby for higher MSP
- Pressure groups for higher subsidies
- GR requires a high amount of irrigation. This necessitates multi-purpose projects. As a result, pressure groups which impress upon environmental issues are engendered
- Pressure groups to not acquire agricultural land for development projects
- New rural elites taking the route of pressure groups to further their agenda
- Subsequently, they become farmer parties