- India has emerged as a surrogacy hub for couples from other countries. What sociological implications does it have on women in general? 10
- Questionnaire is an economical way of data collection but is laden with surfeit limitations. Analyse. 10
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1. India has emerged as a surrogacy hub for couples from other countries. What sociological implications does it have on women in general? 10
- Surrogacy is the practice whereby a woman carries the child for another person/couple with the intention that the child should be handed over to them after birth.
- India is a demographically rich country but lagging behind in per capita income. This is the reason that women from our country are choosing surrogacy as an option for their livelihood.
- Surrogacy are of two types altruistic and commercial.
- Altruistic surrogacy involves no monetary compensation to the surrogate mother other than the medical expenses and insurance coverage during the pregnancy.
- Commercial surrogacy includes surrogacy or its related procedures undertaken for a monetary benefit or reward (in cash or kind) exceeding the basic medical expenses and insurance coverage.
- Implications of surrogacy:
- Exploitation of the Surrogate and the Child: Poor women are being exploited in the name of surrogacy. The couple who have hired the womb is mostly concerned about the child and have nothing to do with the female carrying them.
- Reinforces Patriarchal Norms: It directly affects women's fundamental rights to reproduce and upholds the traditional patriarchal norms of our society that place no value on the labour performed by women.
- Social Exclusion: The surrogate mother in Indian culture is not a respected means of income. As reproduction in India is something attached to the sacrament. As a result, moany times women face exclusion from society.
- Emotional disabilities: In altruistic surrogacy, a friend or relative as a surrogate mother may lead to emotional complications not only for the intended parents but also for the surrogate child as there is great deal of risk to the relationship in the course of surrogacy period and post birth.
- Derogatory to the status of surrogate: Women do not have right over her own body and have to sell her natural gift of reproduction as labour in the market.
- Few scholars have gone as far as to call international commercial surrogacy “reproductive trafficking” because “it creates a national and international traffic in women in which women become moveable property, objects of the reproductive exchange and brokered by go-betweens mainly serving the buyer.”
- Surrogacy is a blessing to the parents who can't be one with natural means but, the ethical and moral obligations of surrogacy can’t be ignored. The need of hour is proper legislations and motivating altruistic surrogacy as has been done by the government of India recently.
2. Questionnaire is an economical way of data collection but is laden with surfeit limitations. Analyse. 10
- A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions designed to elicit information from respondents. Questionnaires can be viewed as a type of written interview.
- Questionnaires are briefly associated with many advantages viz:
- They are an economic way of accumulating information.
- Online questionnaires have greater accessibility for geographically widespread respondents.
- Secrecy of the respondents can be maintained.
- Useful for data generalisation.
- But it has plethora of disadvantages too:
- Limited to the literate section of society. This restricts the number of respondents.
- If the questions are not to the point then it creates misunderstanding and does not yield the desired results.
- Biassed responses by the respondents due to a variety of reasons.
- Questionnaires do not provide an opportunity to collect additional information while they are being completed.
- Lacks depth in questions thus desired answers may not be yielded.
- The return rate of questionnaires is low. The common return rate is 30 to 40 percent.
- Mailed questionnaires may not reach the right address.
- Researchers are not sure whether the person to whom the questionnaire was mailed has himself answered the questions or somebody else has filled up the questionnaire.
- Since the size of the questionnaire has to be kept small, full information cannot be secured from the respondents.
- Data collected may not be valid or reliable.
- Though questionnaires have certain limitations, it is a popular way of data collection and can be used in combination with other tools of data collection as well.