Week 6 Day 4
Model Solutions (PDF)
- What are the different kinds of emergencies that can be proclaimed by the President of India? What conditions must be satisfied for such declarations to be issued? (10)
- In the 21st century, India needs to weigh the relationship with the Gulf countries not merely through economic but strategic prism. Discuss. (250 words)
Model Structure 1.
● A state of emergency in India refers to a period of governance that can be proclaimed by the President of India during certain crisis situations (Using Article 352-360 of Indian Constitution.
● Different kinds of emergencies that can be proclaimed by the President and their conditions are as follows:
○ National Emergency (Article 352) - It can be proclaimed only when the security of India or a part of it is threatened by war, external aggression (External Emergency) or armed rebellion (Internal Emergency).
○ President’s Rule (State Emergency or Constitutional Emergency) (Article 356) - It can be proclaimed when the government of a state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution (356). Or the State fails to comply with the direction given by the Centre. (Art 365)
○ Financial Emergency (360) - Due to threat to the financial stability or Credit of India
● Emergency provisions bestow unprecedented powers in the hands of the central government, thus they should be used only in extraordinary situations.
Model Structure 2.
● For decades, India saw the Gulf countries largely from the economic prism, as a source of oil and a destination for labour exports. However, over the last few years, this economic prism has morphed into a strategic embrace.
● Transformation of Gulf Region
○ No Longer Exclusive Petro-States: The Gulf states are no longer seen as a collection of petro-states, now they have established a strong structure of finance capital built on the massive accumulation of oil revenues.
- This has given rise to what is today called “Khaleeji” or Gulf capitalism.
○ Khaleeji Capitalism: It is a concept which tracks the rise of large conglomerates and sovereign wealth funds in the Gulf.
- It is due to this capitalism model that the gulf countries dominate several regional sectors — from banking and finance to infrastructure and logistics, from agribusiness and real estate to retail to telecom.
○ Moving Towards Modernisation: Gulf countries, in the present times, seek to reduce the heavy hand of religion on social life, expand the rights of women, widen religious freedoms, promote tolerance, and develop a national identity that is not tied exclusively to religion.
- The UAE has been the leader in this regard. It has initiated reforms including the decriminalisation of alcohol use, permission for cohabitation among unmarried couples, criminalisation of honour crimes against women, and the institution of long-term visas.
○ De-hyphenation of India-Pakistan: Today, the Gulf countries are eager to build strong and independent political ties with India, without getting affected by the India-Pakistan relations.
● New Opportunities for India
○ Shielding India’s Economic Interest: First and foremost, Indian foreign policy should shield India’s interests in the post-pandemic turbulence.
- Due to economic instability caused by the pandemic, the Gulf countries are considering cutting back on foreign labour.
- India should ensure that the Indian expatriates will not be affected by this.
○ Focusing Beyond Oil: There is a need to focus on the new and long-term possibilities for economic cooperation with the Gulf countries, which is looking at a future beyond oil.
- The Gulf states have embarked on massive economic diversification and are investing in a variety of new projects including renewable energy, higher education, technological innovation, smart cities, and space commerce.
- India also needs to tap into the possibilities of Gulf capital for its own economic development. The big gap between the investments that the Gulf is ready to offer and India’s ability to absorb needs to be reduced.
- In 2015, the UAE committed to investing $75 billion in India. However, there is still a large gap facilitating that scale of investments.
○ Leveraging Gulf-Israel Normalisation: Earlier this year, UAE and Bahrain have normalised relations with Israel. This provides an opportunity for India to increase economic and technological engagement with Israel.
○ Getting Along With Khaleeji Capitalism: With the rise of Khaleeji capitalism, the Gulf countries today deliver economic and security assistance to friendly states, build ports and infrastructure, acquire military bases and broker peace between warring parties and states.
○ The UAE currently chairs the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) and has been eager to work with India in developing joint infrastructure projects.
○ India needs to bring scale and depth to its regional initiatives on connectivity and security in the Indian Ocean.
● The Middle East has become more multipolar, with power diffused among a variety of regional and extra-regional actors. Within this mix, the rise of modern values and Khaleeji Capitalism in the gulf countries make the case for India to discard outdated perceptions of the Gulf and seize the new strategic possibilities with the region.