UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing (07-11-2022)

UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing

Questions

  1. Q1. Explain the relevance of the following in the context of civil service:
    (i) Public Trust
    (ii) Compassion
    (iii) Objectivity
    (iv) Integrity
    (v) Fortitude   
    150 words (10 marks)
  2. Explain the difference between end-oriented values and means-oriented values. In your opinion, which is more important for a public servant? (150 words)  10 marks

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Model Solutions

Q1. Explain the relevance of the following in the context of civil service:
(i) Public Trust
(ii) Compassion
(iii) Objectivity
(iv) Integrity
(v) Fortitude
150 words (10 marks)

Model Structure

Public Trust: It is the firm belief in the reliability, truth, or ability of people in public offices, institutions and officials. It is a measure of public confidence and faith commanded by an officer or an institution or a system. High public trust enables a civil servant to experiment with new ideas and take risks in decision-making, whereas low public trust raises questions on every activity. It can be built by consistent performance and efficient delivery of expected services. For example, high trust enjoyed by the Election Commission has helped it in implementing ‘Model Code of Conduct’ even without the Legislature’s backing.

Compassion: It can be defined as the feeling that arises when one is confronted with another’s suffering and feels motivated to relieve that suffering. Buddhism teaches the practice of compassion, called “karuna”. Compassion makes a civil servant lead with not only head but also heart. It is essential to ensure welfare of weaker sections who are mostly dependent on public services. It makes the administration sensitive and responsive to the needs of every citizen, thus, contributing to efficient service delivery. For example, if a grievance redressal meeting has to be held for the differently abled in a collectorate, an officer with compassion will ensure that proper arrangements are made for accessibility, such as having a ramp/elevator.

Objectivity: It is the quality of being truthful, unbiased, impartial and sticking to the facts beyond the influence of one’s feelings and prejudices. Objectivity helps a civil servant to rise above his/her own biases and perceptions and take actions rationally in the larger interest. For example, a judicial magistrate with objectivity would go by the merits of a robbery case rather than being influenced by the public perception of the culprit.

Integrity: Integrity means having the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles that one refuses to change, even if no one is watching. It is the integration of ideals, conviction, standards, belief and behaviour. Integrity is the foundation of public trust and is at the core of successful discharge of duties by a civil servant. Civil servants should not act or take decisions in order to gain financial or other material benefits for themselves, their family, or their friends. A civil servant with integrity declares and resolves any interests and relationships, which may raise any conflict of interest in discharging his/her official duties.

Fortitude: It refers to the strength of mind that gives one the capacity to endure adversity with courage. A person with fortitude can persevere and remain true to one’s moral values, even in adverse circumstances. Civil servants work in a dynamic environment where they may be subjected to various external pulls and pressures. They must demonstrate steadfastness and commitment to their values. For example, Satyendra Dubey showed exemplary fortitude when He stood against corruption in his own department even when his life was in danger.


Q2. Explain the difference between end-oriented values and means-oriented values. In your opinion, which is more important for a public servant? (150 words) 10 marks

Model Structure
Introduction:

  • Values are internalized cognitive structures that guide choices by evoking a sense of rightness and wrongness or a sense of priorities.

Main Body
These values can broadly be categorized into two main groups:

  • End-oriented values: These values are concerned with the goals, which one should aim to achieve while performing one’s duties. They are based on what consequences will an action lead to, and may best be visualized as those covered by Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Rights etc.
  • Means-oriented values: They are concerned with the ways in which a person behaves or acts while performing one’s duty. They are concerned with whether the action being performed is itself the right thing to do or not; for example: transparency, responsiveness, efficiency, adherence to rules and procedures etc.
  • Important value for public servant:
    • Public servants hold important fiduciary positions, enjoy several wide ranging powers and have special obligations, they must be guided by a set of values that distinguishes them from other professions.
    • Public servants act as a trustee of the public and run the country as per the constitutional mandate.
      • In this way, for a public servant, ends are very important as they have to work to uphold rule of law, fairness, justice, compassion towards weaker sections, liberty and equality of all, etc.
    • However, it is equally important that a public servant while discharging his/her duties must be guided by strict adherence to the procedures.
      • This is to ensure that the machinery of the government is indeed being used to serve the public interest rather than some private interest.
      • For example, transparency, accountability, integrity, impartiality, neutrality, honesty etc. are values which act as a bulwark against nepotism, corruption and acts of omission or commission.

Conclusion

  • For public servants, governance should not only be ethical but governance should also be seen as being ethical.
  • Thus, it can be said that although the end objectives of the tasks of a public servant are primarily related to larger public interest, it is important that they carry forth their tasks maintaining the highest degree of standards i.e. means are as important as ends.
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