- There are no permanent friends but only permanent interests. In this context, explain international ethics and various approaches in the sphere of international ethics. (10 marks)
- Work ethics is an important aspect of efficient work. Enumerate and explain the characteristics of ethical work culture. (10 marks)
Q1. There are no permanent friends but only permanent interests. In this context, explain international ethics and various approaches in the sphere of international ethics. (10 marks)
- International ethics in a broad sense means the globally accepted norms which guide regulation of international affairs and use of global commons. Its result is the benefits that humanity can reap by good interactions, relations and exchanges.
- To ensure universal principles are accepted and adopted across the globe and countries actively participate in shaping the international community, various agencies of the UN are involved. It is a study of how bounded communities, here countries, treat outsiders and whether this treatment is just or not.
- Various approaches in international ethics include-
- Idealism- It creates an ideal situation based on idealist values, which focuses on common interests and unifying factors rather than power balance. Rules, laws and mandates of international institutions are upheld even if there are conflicts and skirmishes.
- Realpolitik/Realism- It means that might is right and nothing else like law, ethics, morality etc matters. It creates a space where anarchy prevails and an ethically neutral zone is created.
- Cosmopolitanism- It is near to idealism and connotes to ‘do the right thing’ and this right thing is to behave as you want others to behave. It is in favour of following ‘morally lawful behaviour’ and calls for peaceful negotiation in case of grey areas.
- Constructivism- This concept focuses on foreign policy and diplomacy to shape international ethics because leaders carry public mandate and thus reflect demands of a nation. This reflects the impact domestic policies have on international affairs and foreign policy.
- Equality of life- It equates all life as important and treats global interest on the same wavelength as domestic interest. Welfare of citizens of that country is not given preference and everyone is treated equally in all aspects.
- Though the interaction and collaboration among nations has increased in recent times, it has raised many ethical issues. Even though the world has become a better place to live in in terms of economic prosperity, a lot of issues have mushroomed in terms of peace, human rights, equality, environment etc. So there is an urgent need of global bodies to enforce actions which aim at sustainable solutions to these problems.
Q2. Work ethics is an important aspect of efficient work. Enumerate and explain the characteristics of ethical work culture. (10 marks)
- Work culture is a shared way to think and act in an organization which is due to well established and mutually agreed values and practices. Work culture of any organization reflects its historical progress, vision, norms and values it attaches to certain things.
- Any work culture which promotes inclusivity, commitment of employees, improved performance and diversity is a desirable work culture. In this context, characteristics of ethical work culture include-
- Leadership effectiveness – It means that leaders walk the talk and for that they imbibe organization’s values in their own behavior. This helps set a precedent which is followed by subordinates.
- Stakeholder balance – There is diversity of interests in any organization and this can lead to conflicting situations and tensions. Customers want cost effective and quality products, investors want ever increasing return, employees want better wages with reasonable work and communities want CSR.
- Values – It is the most important aspect and must be followed by all sections and groups to ensure well established standards are maintained.
- Process integrity – It ensures standards are maintained in every process of the system whether it is hiring, promoting, recruiting, demoting etc. Lack of integrity can create confusion and poor decision making.
- Long term perspective – Leaders in an organization also have a task to plan for the future so that sustained growth can be maintained. For this, strategic planning is done keeping the interest of all stakeholders in mind.
- So it is clear that work ethics is very important for infusing respect among employees, minimizing conflicts, encouraging performance, and objectively judging performance of employees based on work and nothing else.
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