UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing - 13 November (GS 4)


Q1.  (a) What were the major teachings of Guru Nanak? Explain their relevance in the contemporary world. (10)

(b) Explain the term social capital. How does it enhance good governance? (10)

Model Solutions

Q1. (a) What were the major teachings of Guru Nanak? Explain their relevance in the contemporary world.(10)

Model Structure

  • Guru Nanak's teachings emphasized unity, equality, compassion, and the oneness of humanity which are relevant in today's diverse and interconnected world to foster peace, harmony and social justice.

Main Body
Major teachings of Guru Nanak and their contemporary relevance needs to be understood in tandem rather than in silos.

Major Teachings of Guru Nanak
Their contemporary relevance 
Seva i.e selfless service.
Other religions like Christianity also promote it via ‘Service before self’. They do it by their community kitchens i.e langar even in times of disasters. 
Social justice and inclusivity as he was against caste discrimination.
This idea echoes in part III and IV of our constitution and at the international level in UDHR.
Ik Onkar i.e monotheistic belief in one God and one creator. 
The crux of all religions is common and this idea promotes tolerance and brotherhood
Kirat Karo i.e put all the efforts in the work with honesty.
It helps prevent easy paths of corruption and dereliction of duty. The dedication shown by Satyendra Dubey is a prime example.
Interfaith dialogues.
Core teachings of all religions are the same but practices are different. And these practices result in discord. To ensure discord is prevented, there is a need for dialogues.
Vaand Chakho i.e sharing with others and helping them when in need.
Philanthropic activities, CSR, role of NGOs etc is a prime example of it.


  • Guru Nanak’s message of compassion, equality, and social justice is relevant in today's world as it promotes interfaith dialogue, inclusive societies and unity across diverse communities.

(b) Explain the term social capital. How does it enhance good governance? (10)

Model Structure

  • Social capital is an intangible asset made of relationships and trust among communities which fosters cooperation, accountability, and citizen engagement to usher in good governance.

Main Body
There are many ways in which social capital enhances good governance like-

  • More social capital means more transparency and accountability in governance which allows citizens to make well-informed decisions.
  • Easy to mobilize people for effective movements which help pressurize governments and bring in improved governance.
  • It improves trust between individuals, communities and institutions and the outcome is increased compliance with laws.
  • Social capital acts as guardian of values like pluralism, justice and freedom leading to improved governance.
  • Better unity which leads to improved collaboration resulting in effective governance.
  • Fostering inclusivity as diverse perspectives are accommodated in policy making.
  • Community building by ensuring social cohesiveness which gives enough time and resources to administration to focus on governance.
  • Active participation of all sections in times of crisis to improve resilience.


  • There is a need to build strong social networks, improve community engagement and make communities more interconnected for improved social capital and prosperous societies.

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