- Bronze sculpture making was started in Indus valley civilization (IVC) and reached its Zenith in Chola reign. Discuss. (Answer in 150 Words) (10)
- Krishnadeva Raya, the King of Vijayanagar, was not only an accomplished scholar himself but was also a great patron of learning and literature. Discuss. (Answer in 250 words) (15)
1. Bronze sculpture making was started in Indus valley civilization (IVC) and reached its Zenith in Chola reign. Discuss (10 Marks)
- Indus Valley Civilization: Cire-perdue or ‘lost-wax’ process for casting. Process of making bronze alloy by mixing copper, zinc and tin was also discovered during this period.
Evolution of Bronze sculpture from the Indus valley Civilization to Chola reign
- ‘Dancing Girl’ from Mohenjodaro is the earliest bronze sculpture datable to 2500 BCE. The limbs and torso of this female figurine are simplified in tubular form. A similar group of bronze statuettes have been discovered from archaeological excavation at Daimabad (Maharashtra) dating to 1500 BCE.
- Dancing Girl of Mohonjadaro: Bronze, Right hand rests on hip; left arm covered with bangles. Tribhanga posture
- Interesting images of Jain Tirthankaras have been discovered from Chausa, Bihar, belonging to the Kushana Period during the second century CE. These bronzes show how the Indian sculptors had mastered the modelling of masculine human physique and simplified muscles.
- Bronze sculptures and statues of Buddhist, Hindu and Jain icons have been discovered from many regions of India dating from the second century until the sixteenth century. Most of these were used for ritual worship and are characterised by exquisite beauty and aesthetic appeal.
- Although bronze images were modelled and cast during the Pallava Period in the eighth and ninth centuries, some of the most beautiful and exquisite statues were produced during the Chola Period in Tamil Nadu from the tenth to the twelfth century.
- The distinguished patron during the tenth century was the widowed Chola queen, Sembiyan Maha Devi. Chola bronzes are the most sought-after collectors’ items by art lovers all over the world.
- The well-known dancing figure of Shiva as Nataraja evolved and fully developed during the Chola Period and since then many variations of this complex bronze image have been modelled.
- The Bronze technique and art of fashioning bronze images of chola period is still skillfully practised in India, particularly in Kumbakonam (Tamil Nadu). It shows the significance of the Bronze sculpture of the Chola Period even in the present era.
2. Krishnadeva Raya, the King of Vijayanagar, was not only an accomplished scholar himself but was also a great patron of learning and literature. Discuss. (15 Marks)
- Krishnadeva Raya who ruled the kingdom of Vijayanagar was one of the greatest statesmen which mediaeval South India had produced. Called variously as ‘Kannadaraya’, ‘Sri Karnata Mahisa’ and ‘Kannada Rajya Ramaramana’, his rule saw all round prosperity of South India, culturally and materialistically.
- Krishnadeva Raya was a great patron of literature and was known as Abhinava Bhoja. Himself being a scholar, he wrote the Telugu work Amuktamalyada and a Sanskrit play, Jambavati Kalyana.
- He had eight great scholars called Ashtadiggajas in his court. They included Allasani Peddana often described as the Andhra-kavitapitamaha. His famous work was Manucharitamu; another famous poet was Nandi Thimmanna, the author of Parijathapaharanamu.
- Other eminent literary luminaries were Tenali Ramakrishna, Kumara Dhurjati and Rama Raja Bhushana.
- He asked the Kannada poet Thimmanna to complete the Kannada Mahabharatha started by Kumara Vyasa.
- Telugu poet Peddanna was personally honoured by him for his proficiency in Telugu and Sanskrit and Krishnadevaraya himself gave a helping hand to lift the palanquin in which the poet's book 'Manucharitamu' was placd and taken in a procession.
- He was responsible for developing and nurturing Carnatic musical tradition by providing shelter to musicians such as VyasaRaya, who was the propagator of Haridasa movement in Karnataka.
- He encouraged classical dance forms such as Bharatanatyam and Kuchipudi, which reached its height during the reign of Krishnadeva Raya.
- According to Nidatavolu Venkata Rao, the reign of Krishnadevaraya is a glorious chapter in South Indian literary history. The imperial court had representatives of Sanskrit, Telugu, Kannada and Tamil poets, who contributed largely to their respective literatures.