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1. How illegal migration in India is one of the major internal security challenges. Also discuss the existing legal framework to deal with the issue. (150 Words).
2. What is agricultural biotechnology? What are the risks and benefits associated with it? (250 Words)
Model Structure 1.
● As per the provisions of the Citizenship Act as amended in 2003, an illegal immigrant in India is a foreigner who has entered India either without valid documents or who initially had a valid document, but has overstayed beyond the permitted time.
● Illegal migration as an internal security challenge
○ Threat to National Security:
- Eg. illegal immigration of Rohingyas into India and their continued stay in India is found to be having serious national security ramifications
○ Clash of Interests: It impacts the interests of local populations in the areas seeing large-scale influxes of illegal immigrants.
○ Political Instability: It also increases the political instability when leaders start mobilising the perception of the citizens of the country against the migrants by the elites to grab political power.
○ Rise of Militancy: The persistent attacks against the Muslims perceived as illegal migrants has given way to radicalisation.
○ Human trafficking: In the recent decades, trafficking of women and human smuggling have become quite rampant across the borders.
○ Disturbance in Law and Order: The rule of law and integrity of the country are undermined by the illegal migrants who are engaged in illegal and anti-national activities.
● Existing Legal Framework
○ Foreigners Act, 1946: The act empowered the government to take such steps as are necessary to prevent illegal migrants including the use of force.
1. The act empowered the government to establish tribunals which would have powers similar to those of a civil court.
○ The Registration of Foreigners Act, 1939: Registration under Foreigners Regional Registration Officer is a mandatory requirement under which all foreign nationals (excluding overseas citizens of India) visiting India on a long term visa (more than 180 days) are required to register themselves with a Registration Officer within 14 days of arriving in India.
○ The Citizenship Act, 1955: It provides for the acquisition and determination of Indian citizenship.
- Citizenship amendment act 2019 amends the 1955 Act to provide that the Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, who entered India on or before December 31, 2014, will not be treated as illegal migrants.
● In spite of not being a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol, India has been one of the largest recipients of refugees in the world.
● However, if India had domestic legislation regarding refugees, it could have deterred any oppressive government in the neighborhood to persecute their population and make them flee to India.
Model Structure 2.
● Agricultural biotechnology is a range of tools that alter living organisms, or parts of organisms, to make or modify products; improve plants or animals; or develop microorganisms for specific agricultural uses. It includes both traditional breeding techniques and modern tools of genetic engineering.
● For Producers:
○ Safe and easier pest control and weed management E.g. BT Brinjal.
○ Enhanced crop yields and productivity.
○ Withstand weather fluctuations and extremes E.g. Flood-tolerant “Scuba Rice”
○ Enhanced quality traits E.g. Golden rice with Vitamin A
● For Consumers:
○ Foods with long-lasting life E.g. FlavrSavr tomato.
○ Enhanced Nutrition via food fortification E.g. Iodine Salt
○ Lower levels of toxicants in food.
○ Low saturated fats in cooking oils etc.
● For Researchers:
○ Understanding the basic biology of living organisms.
○ Producing newer more potent antibiotics.
○ Producing new vaccines for crop diseases.
● For Environment:
○ Herbicide-tolerant crops, compatible with no-till/reduced tillage systems, helps preserve topsoil from erosion E.g. HT mustard
○ Phyto-remediation E.g. Use of Poplar handling heavy metallic Pollution.
● Risks associated:
○ Effects on human health are not well studied. It may trigger:
- Emergence of new disease ■
○ Impact on other organisms and the overall environment is also debatable.
○ Anti-microbial resistance – E.g. BT cotton has developed resistance to Pink ball worms.
○ Patent Rights can lead to monopolization E.g. Terminator seeds.
○ GM crops could push farmers to debt.
● Biotechnology has all the potential to revolutionise agriculture but it needs appropriate safeguards and awareness programmes to meet the apprehensions of all stakeholders.Previous Post