UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing (20-10-2022)

UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing

Questions

  1. Analyze the reasons for linguistic conflicts in the years after independence. To what extent did the State's reorganization on the basis of language resolve these conflicts? (150 words)           10 marks
  2. Geographical landforms such as the Plateau are significant for agriculture and economic value. Examine with examples. (150 words)     10 marks

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Model Solutions

Q1. Analyze the reasons for linguistic conflicts in the years after independence. To what extent did the State's reorganization on the basis of language resolve these conflicts?
(150 words) 10 marks

Model Structure
Introduction:

  • Post independent India saw three kinds of language related conflicts: (i) issue of national language, (ii) issue of official language (iii) reorganization of states on the basis of language. or
  • Haphazard demarcation of boundaries by the British during colonial period, linguistic diversity and perceived fear of cultural homogenization due to selection of Hindi as an official language were the root cause of these conflicts.

Main Body:

  • The reasons for linguistic conflicts post independence are:-
    • Experience of partition and competition between different regions led to erosion of trust. Language became one of the driving forces behind regionalism.
    • Mass leaders such as Gandhiji, Ambedkar favored one single national language and the constitution selected Hindi as the official language.
    • It was seen as a loss of employment and education opportunities creating fear in the mind of non-Hindi citizens particularly in Southern India.
    • In the Nagpur session 1920 congress recognised regional units based on language and the Nehru report 1928 promised for linguistic provinces.
      • However, committees such as S K Dhar committee and JVP committee in 1948 rejected language as a basis for reorganization of states.
    • Regional parties politicized language related issues for the sake of electoral benefits.
  • The Fazl Ali commission was appointed and based on its State Reorganization Act 1956 (SRA 1956) was passed. It resolved the ongoing linguistic conflict to a large extent and helped in the following ways:-
    • It largely satisfied the linguistic demands of the people.
    • It controlled the regionalistic and secessionist tendencies which might have threatened India’s unity.
    • Linguistic states made administration easier which meant better governance and service delivery for people.
  • However, SRA 1956 was not able to solve all the problems:
    • One language-one state principle was not followed. This meant not all regional aspirations were fulfilled. For example: Punjab.
    • Anti-Hindi agitations in Tamil Nadu during 1960’s shows that language remained a contentious issue even after the linguistic reorganization of states in 1956.
    • Many political parties have used language as a tool to create a divide between native and non-native speakers for electoral politics.
      • Eg-Between Hindi and Marathi, Hindi and Assamese.
    • The Gorkhaland movement presents a recent example based on linguistic, ethnic and cultural issues.

Conclusion:

  • The present challenges require more people to people interaction between different regions, adopting and learning other languages, increased tourism thorough schemes such as Ek Bharath Shrestha Bharat.

Q2. Geographical landforms such as the Plateau are significant for agriculture and economic value. Examine with examples. (150 words) 10 marks

Model Structure
Introduction:

Plateau is an extensive area of flat upland and covers about 18% of the earth’s land surface.

Main Body:

  • Economic significance of Plateau
    • Storehouses of minerals: Minerals like coal, iron ore, etc are significant for industrial development.
      • Example: Chota Nagpur Plateau, Plateau of western Australia.
    • Energy sector: Plateaus led to formation of waterfalls- ideal for the hydro electricity generation.
      • Example: jog falls is a lifeline for iron and steel industries of the region.
    • Tourism sector: Due to their high elevation, they act as scenic spots and places of adventures.
      • Example: Rajrappa falls on Ranchi Plateau.
  • Agricultural significance of Plateau
    • Plantation: Plateaus have cool climate and play a crucial role in development of Plantations.
      • Example: Samthar plateau and Deccan Plateau-Chikmagalur Arabica coffee plantation.
    • Animal rearing and agriculture: Plateaus have large grassland areas suitable for animal rearing.
      • Example: Malwa Plateau is known for dry farming.
    • Rich soils: plateaus of volcanic origin have fertile soil.
      • Example: Deccan Plateau is famous for regur soil, good for cotton cultivation.
    • Water resources: plateaus are dissected by rivers, thus increasing the significance of cultivation.
      • Example: Godavari and Kaveri dissect Deccan Plateau.
    • Forest resource: Forest rich plateaus are a source for honey, wood, lac, etc.
      • Example: Maharashtra Plateau.

Conclusion:

  • Plateaus are thus an important geomorphological entity creating a link between resources and humans, helping them achieve civilisational success.

How to write a good answer in UPSC Mains?
1. Divide your answer under relevant subheadings. Eg. Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India Subheadings: * Travellers * Importance of Chinese * Importance of Arab * Limitations of these accounts 2. Substanti…
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