UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing (27 June 2022)

UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing

Questions

Model solution

1. Indian art heritage is one of the oldest and diverse cultural symbols in the world. In this context, safeguarding Indian art heritage is the need of the moment. Discuss.

2. The Civil Disobedience Movement began with Gandhi's well-known Dandi March. What were the causes of the civil disobedience movement? Critically evaluate its significance.


Model Structure 1.

Introduction:

● India has a vast basket of diverse art and cultural heritage which need institutional support and encouragement to address areas critical for their survival and preservation.

Main body:

● Threats to Indian Art Heritage:

○ Theft

○ Smuggling

○ Unregulated tourism

○ Issues with security of museums

○ Poor maintenance of Heritage sites

○ Encroachment on monuments: Over 278 centrally protected monuments have been encroached upon or have illegal occupants, as per government data.

● Reasons to preserve our art heritage:

○ Presently, many Indian art forms are on the verge of extinction such as Manjusha painting of Bihar, traditional art of Puppetry, Parsi embroidery, Naga craft, Dhokra handicraft, etc., which need protection and preservation.

○ Preserving our heritage is enshrined as a Fundamental Duty in our Constitution (Art. 51A)

○ India has a unique identity in the world for its art and culture which represents Indian civilization on the world platform and if it vanishes the uniqueness of India will get affected.

○ For many tribal communities, art and craft is the source of income.

○ This is also the source of attraction for tourism which contributes to economic development of the country.

○ Art heritage also represents “unity in diversity” of India and builds a bridge between people living abroad to get connected with their native country.

○ Art and culture is also a part of soft power in world politics.

● Government has started many initiatives to preserve the rich art heritage of the country, such as, Scheme for Conservation of Wall Painting (1996-97), Ek Bharat Shresth Bharat programme, Tribal haats, GI tag to the local products, e-haat, etc.

● Way forward

○ Strengthening Legislation and Initiatives

○ Strengthening institutions such as ASI

○ Cultural awareness: through schools and colleges

Conclusion

● Apart from strict implementation of such programmes, the Government should provide financial assistance to strengthen regional and local museums, preserve art heritage through virtual media, and promote local paintings on products like wallet, mobile cover, pillow cover, etc.

2. The Civil Disobedience Movement began with Gandhi's well-known Dandi March. What were the causes of the civil disobedience movement? Critically evaluate its significance.


Model Structure 2.

Introduction:

● The Dandi March, also known as the Salt March and the Dandi Satyagraha was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

Main body:

Causes:

● The salt monopoly was a fourfold curse.

○ It deprived the people of a valuable easy village industry,

○ involved huge destruction of property that nature produces in abundance.

○ the destruction itself meant more national expenditure, and fourthly,

○ an unheard-of tax of more than 1,000 per cent is exacted from a starving people.

● The Simon Commission came to India in 1928. To look into the functions of the constitutional system working in India. But had no Indian member in it, it was boycotted by all political parties in the country.

● In 1929, the Congress under the leadership of Nehru declared 'Poorna Swaraj' as its main aim.

● As nationalist feelings began to emerge, Gandhi sent a letter containing eleven demands to Lord Irwin in 1930. When he refused, Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Significance (critical evaluation):

● The Dandi march was the most significant organised movement against the British Raj after the non-cooperation movement. it drove attention from the national and international media and world leaders.  

● The popularity gained by the march shook up the British government. Several were arrested , Gandhi proceeded to Dharasana salt works from where he was arrested and taken to the Yerawada Central Jail.

● As Gandhi broke the salt laws in Dandi, similar acts of civil disobedience took place in other parts of India. In Bengal, volunteers led by Satish Chandra Dasgupta walked from Sodepur Ashram to the village of Mahisbathan to make salt.

● The movement was accompanied by the boycott of foreign cloth and liquor. Forest laws were violated in Maharashtra, Karnataka and the Central Provinces. Peasants in Gujarat and Bengal refused to pay land and chowkidari taxes.

● The Congress Working Committee decided to end the Satyagraha only in 1934. The Salt Satyagraha did have some long term effects. “Indian, British and world opinion increasingly recognised the legitimate claims of Gandhi and the Congress for Indian Independence,” .

● Foreign imports of clothing and cigarettes were cut in half. Government revenue from land revenue and liquor excise were also reduced.

● A truce was declared, which was formalised in the Gandhi-Irwin Pact . Paving the way for Gandhi, representing the Indian National Congress, to attend the second session (September–December 1931) of the Round Table Conference in London.

Conclusion:

● The civil disobedience movement was the first to be conducted on a national scale, while all others were limited to urban areas. This movement provided people in rural areas with the opportunity to participate. It was truly a turning point in the Indian Independence movement, for it moved the freedom movement towards complete independence.


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