- Define Globalization. Discuss the effects of globalization on employment and poverty in India. (15 Marks)
- Assam is known for recurrent flooding every year impacting more than 31.05 Lakh Hectare of flood prone area. Examine the causes and suggest remedies for the same. (15 Marks)
Model Structure 1.
● Globalisation is Complex setup of interactions in social, economic, political, cultural and psychological sphere of human life leading to increased interconnectedness, integration and interdependence between two entities (individuals, MNCs, nations) located at different locations (usually in different countries)
● Globalisation according to Luke Martell is “the integration of poor countries into a world economy of open competition”
There are several effects of globalization on various spheres , especially on employment and poverty.
Effect on employment:
● Creation Of Jobs In Formal Sector: The investment by the MNCs in India has led to creation of job opportunities, including for women workers.
● Internationalization of The Issue of Women Workers Rights: Globalisation has also brought focus on the issue of workers’ rights, especially for women, through the International Labour Organisation and World Trade Organisation. This has led to the creation and standardisation of various rights.ex: maternity leave, periods leave.
● Strengthening Of The Women Workers In The Informal Sector: Globalisation has provided the opportunity of export, trade for the informal sectors of India benefitting the women workers in such sectors.
● Gender Pay Gap:Various reports have highlighted that globalisation has either failed to fill the gender pay gap or has further accentuated this situation.
● Loss of Jobs: The increased competition and innovation from all over the world has led to loss of jobs, including of women, in certain sectors that couldn't compete.
● Strain On Traditional Social Structure: Globalization, by creating jobs predominantly in urban areas led to mass movement of workers to urban areas, thus disturbing and straining traditional social as well as family structures.
● Migration: Feminisation of rural labour has led to migration of male members to urban areas.
● Sexual Eaxploitation:Movement of women workers to far off areas and away from families has also led to increased vulnerability and increased sexual exploitation and even trafficking.
● Health hazard: The increased competition and work pressure on women workers often led to them being employed in poorly paid, part time and exploitative jobs. This has impacted physical and mental health of the women workers.
● Casualization of workforce: due to informal economy and contract based jobs.
Effect on poverty:
● As globalisation has progressed, living conditions (particularly when measured by broader indicators of well being) have improved significantly in virtually all countries. However, the strongest gains have been made by the advanced countries and only some of the developing countries.
● The revitalization and expansion of the Indian economy helped lift hundreds of millions out of extreme poverty, while also improving the employee benefits offered. This was due to two primary factors:
● Export growth thanks to comparative cost advantage created countless new jobs across the country.
● The lifting of restrictions on capital inflows and outflows increased employment opportunities.
● Globalization opens markets, spreads the use of new technology, and expands division of labour. Division of labour helps societies grow economically. Large numbers of people have been raised out of extreme poverty over the past few decades, particularly in India, China, and Indonesia. Between 1981 and 2001 the percentage of rural people living on less than $1 a day decreased from 63 to 42 per cent in India.
● It opens up new avenues of investment and utilisation of untapped natural resources and latent energies.
● However, industries and jobs may be displaced in the short run as a result of globalisation and trade as economies begin to experience growth.
● creates opportunities only for the skilled or wealthy people. This increases the inequality between the rich and poor.ex: oxfam report on world inequality.
● The IMF’s neoliberal policy of the World Bank, the rise of the Green Revolution, and Structural Adjustment policies created a gap with a chasm of injustice in between.
● It will touch on problems of inequality in the fast fashion industry and inhumane working conditions which, despite reducing poverty, did not render these countries economically viable.
● Thus, while globalisation has led to great benefits, it is also necessary to mitigate the negative impact of it on women workers by skill development, innovation, developing policies to mitigate risks, so as to create an enduring environment for women worker’s holistic development.
Model Structure 2.
● Flooding from the Brahmaputra and other rivers causes a deluge in Assam during the monsoon. 40% of the entire State is flood prone. (Overall, Assam accounts for nearly 10% of the total flood-prone area of the country)
● The inundation is seen to increase every year and there are many factors that lead to it. Apart from the natural topography and annual excessive rainfall in Assam, there are various reasons – both man-made and natural – behind the destructive floods that hit Assam every year.
● Natural causes:
○ Assam is home to a vast network of rivers, including the Brahmaputra and Barak River, and more than 50 tributaries feeding them. Assam also receives river water from neighbouring states like Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya.
○ Erosion: Bank erosion caused by the river Brahmaputra is one of the major reasons why Assam gets flooded every year. Due to erosion, the width of the river increases and it changes its course ,making it the widest river in India.
○ Earthquakes/Landslides : Assam and some other parts of the northeastern region are prone to frequent earthquakes, which causes landslides. Causing the river bed to rise.
● Anthropogenic causes:
○ Floods are also caused by human intervention – like encroachment of river banks and wetlands, lack of drainage, unplanned urban growth, hill cutting and deforestation.
○ The dams that are being built are further aggravating these disasters.
○ National measures to control floods in Assam
- In 1982, the Brahmaputra Board suggested that dams and reservoirs be built to mitigate floods in Assam. While dams are meant to regulate the flow of water.
- Efficient Flood forecasting system.
○ International measures:
- The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)
○ Local area measures
- Flood-plain zoning is another important exercise, under which areas are divided based on the vulnerability, and accordingly certain activities are banned on it like farming, building houses etc.
- River channelization with a siltation device through MGNREGA.
- The Water Resources Department of Assam has constructed embankments and flood walls across the state. River training, bank protection, anti-erosion and town protection are also in the works.
● Thus with both structural and non-structural measures put in place ,managing the catchment areas is important, for which inter sectoral and centre-state coordination are needed.