UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing - 31 October (GS 3)


1. How does e-technology help farmers in production and marketing of agricultural produce? Explain it. (10)

2. State the objectives and measures of land reforms in India. Discuss how land ceiling policy on landholding can be considered as an effective reform under economic criteria.      (10)

Model Solutions

Q1. How does e-technology help farmers in production and marketing of agricultural produce? Explain it. (10)

Main Body:

  • e-technology helps farmers in production:
    • Precision Agriculture: IoT devices enable optimal resource use.
      • John Deere's tractors have sensors and AI to monitor and respond to soil conditions.
    • Weather Forecasting: Apps like Skymet provide localised weather predictions.
      • According to the World Bank, access to accurate weather data can boost farm incomes by 25%.
    • Disease Prediction & Management: Platforms like Plantix analyse images to identify crop diseases.
      • A study by the CGIAR Research Program found that such early detections can prevent crop losses of up to 20%.
    • Knowledge Sharing: Digital Green, an initiative in India, uses videos to disseminate agricultural best practices, reaching over 1.6 million farmers across 15,000 villages.
    • Automated Farming Equipment: Drones, like those from DJI Agras, spray pesticides 40-60 times faster than manual methods.
  • e-technology helps farmers in Marketing:
    • Online Marketplaces: eNAM, launched by the Government of India, connects over 1,000 markets online.
      • As of 2020, transactions worth over ₹1 lakh crore have been conducted on the platform.
    • Price Information: Agri app 'Kisan Suvidha' provides farmers with real-time market prices.
      • A report by IFPRI found that access to such price information reduced farmer losses by 12%.
    • Supply Chain Management: Walmart's pilot project in Andhra Pradesh uses blockchain to track shrimp supply chains, ensuring quality and reducing wastage.
    • Direct Link with Consumers: Platforms like FarmDirect in India connect farmers directly to consumers, ensuring fresher produce and better prices.
    • Digital Payment Systems: The RBI noted a 55% increase in digital transactions in 2019-2020, highlighting the growing preference for digital payments in agriculture.
  • Further steps needed:
    • Infrastructure Development:
      • Improving internet connectivity is pivotal, especially in remote and rural areas. The Douglas Committee emphasised the importance of robust digital infrastructure as a prerequisite for advancing e-technology in agriculture.
    • Training & Workshops:
      • Dr M.S. Swaminathan, often called the father of the Green Revolution in India, advocates for regular training programs to familiarise farmers with the latest e-tools and digital farming techniques.
    • Localised Digital Solutions:
      • Agricultural economist Ashok Gulati has emphasised the need for digital solutions tailored to local languages and regional agricultural challenges.
    • Strengthening Cybersecurity:
      • As agriculture becomes more digital, it's crucial to safeguard farmers from potential cyber threats. The Justice B.N. Srikrishna Committee on Data Protection underscored the importance of robust cybersecurity measures for all sectors, including agriculture.
    • Financial Support:
      • The Rangarajan Committee on Financial Inclusion suggested that banks introduce special schemes and lower interest rates for farmers adopting e-technologies to promote their broader use.
    • Research & Innovation:
      • Prof. Ramesh Chand, a member of NITI Aayog, stressed the importance of continuous research to develop and update e-technologies in line with evolving agricultural challenges.
    • Strengthening E-Governance:
      • Integrating all agricultural services under a single digital umbrella, as the Task Force on IT in Agriculture suggested, can simplify processes and make services more accessible to farmers.


  • E-technology has significantly transformed agriculture in India, making processes efficient and profitable. The amalgamation of real-world examples, data, and reports accentuates the pivotal role of digital tools in empowering farmers and streamlining agricultural practices.

Q2. State the objectives and measures of land reforms in India. Discuss how land ceiling policy on landholding can be considered as an effective reform under economic criteria. (10)
Model Structure

  • Land reforms in a process involving fixing of land ceilings, abolition of intermediaries, tenancy reforms and consolidation of landholdings.


  • Fixing of land ceiling is a component of land reforms in India in which maximum size of land is legally stipulated and it started from Kumarappan Committee recommendations of 1942.

Main Body

The objectives of land reforms include-

  • Land ceiling to disburse surplus land.
  • Abolition of intermediaries.
  • Better distribution amongst tenants.
  • Redistribution of land.
  • Consolidation of land and preventing land fragmentation.
  • Improved agricultural productivity.
  • Tribal protection.
  • Conducive conditions for cooperative farming.
    The measures taken for land reforms include-
  • fixing of land ceilings,
  • abolition of intermediaries,
  • Rent regularization,
  • tenancy reforms and
  • consolidation of landholdings.
    Land ceiling policy on landholding can be an effective reform under economic criteria because-
  • Under land ceiling regulations, the state takes possession of surplus land and redistributes it to landless families and households which increases productivity.
  • Land ceiling results in reduction of inequality.
  • Article 39 under DPSP prevents concentration of wealth and guarantees all citizens the right to basic means of subsistence.
  • Land ceiling limit is a means of redistributive justice.

Land ceiling policy on landholding can be counter-effective under economic criteria because-

  1. Land fragmentation due to ceiling can lead to inefficiencies in farming, as smaller plots may not be economically viable for certain agricultural practices.
  2. It may discourage agricultural investments and modernization as landowners fear government appropriation of surplus lands.
  3. Bureaucratic processes involved in land redistribution can be prone to corruption and mismanagement.
  4. Land ceiling can potentially discourage large-scale farming which benefits from economies of scale, thereby affecting overall productivity.


  • While land ceiling policies aim to promote equitable land distribution, they can inadvertently hinder agricultural efficiency and discourage large-scale farming investments.
  • Land reforms in India have been partially successful in addressing historical inequities and novel methods like land pooling, contract farming etc can be undertaken to address it.
  • The future of land reforms must be done keeping in mind agricultural modernization, land redistribution, and social justice to shape a more inclusive and sustainable agricultural landscape.

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