Battles has been an important factor in creating states and empires throughout history and, equally so, in destroying them. Major advances in science, technology, and engineering have been brought about through necessity during times of war/battles. In UPSC preparation, you must be aware of some such landmark battles in Indian and world history. Here is a curated list of important battles -
Battle of Hydaspes (Jhelum)
Alexander invades India. Defeats Porus.
Conquest of the Nanda Empire
Dhana nanda vs Chandragupta Maurya
Conquest of the Nanda Empire under Dhana Nanda by a force under Chandragupta Maurya
The Seleucid–Mauryan War
Chandragupta Maurya defeats the Greek King Seleucus.
The Kalinga War
Ashoka vs. Kalinga empire
Conquest of Kalinga by Ashoka. The Kalinga War prompted Ashoka to devote the rest of his life to ahimsa (non-violence) and to dharma-Vijaya (victory through dharma). After the conquest of Kalinga, Ashoka ended the military expansion of the empire and began an era peace, harmony, and prosperity.
Battle of Tarai 1
Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan
Battle of Tarai 2
Ghori won, PC killed, Ghori established first Muslim kingdom in India
1st Battle of Panipat
Ibrahim Lodi vs. Babur
Babur won, end of Delhi Sultanate
Battle of Chausa
Humayun and Sher Shah Sur
Sher shah sur won
Battle of Baligram
2nd Battle of Panipat
Akbar vs Hemu
Battle of Tailkota
or Battle of Rakasa-Thangadi or
Battle of Bannihati
Vijaynagara (Ram raya) vs combined forces of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Golkonda
Defeat of Ram Raya. Considered as the end of Vijayanagar Empire (though kingdom existed another century under Aravidu dynasty)
Battle of Haldighati
Rana Pratap vs Mughal led by Man Singh
Rana Pratap severely defeated
(during Akbar's reign)
Battle of Dharmat
Aurangzeb and Dara Shikoh
Part of succession war of Shah Jahan's sons
Treaty of Purandar
Shivaji Maharaj vs. Jaya singh
Jaya singh defeated Shivaji Maharaj. Treaty of Purandar - major setback for Maratha kingdom. 23 Forts handed over to Mughals.
Battle of Karnal
Nader Shah of Persia and Muhammad Shah (Mughal)
Nader won in 3 hrs. Captured Delhi --> Already declining Mughal dynasty was critically weakened to such an extent as to hasten its demise.
Kohinoor diamond taken away by Nader
First Carnatic War
Ended with Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle - ending the Austrian War of Succession.
Second Carnatic War
Third Carnatic War or the Battle of Wandiwash
Ended with the Treaty of Peace of Paris (1763). English became the supreme European power in the Indian subcontinent.
Battle of Plassey
East India Company (EIC) headed by Robert Clive vs. the Nawab of Bengal (Siraj-Ud-Daulah)
EIC won. Historic turning point for British in India; it established political and military supremacy of British in Bengal.
3rd Battle of Panipat
Maratha vs. Ahmed Shah Abdali
Marathas defeated by Abdali.
Battle of Buxar
British East India Company (led by Hector Munro) vs the combined armies of Mir Qasim (Nawab of Bengal); Shuja-ud-Daulah (Nawab of Awadh); and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II
English won. Treaty of Allahabad, 1765 - Established British supremacy in North India. British defeated Mughal empire - landmark event!
1st Anglo-Maratha War
Inconclusive. 20 years peace.
Treaty of Salbai.
Battle of Kangla Tongbi (Battle of Lion Box)
Ordnance personnel of 221 Advance Ordnance Depot (AOD) against Japanese forces
It is considered one of the fiercest battles of World War II.
Japanese to withdraw
*Note - The list will be updated with more details. Keep visiting!