How to introduce answers in UPSC Mains?

UPSC Mains

Introduction in UPSC Mains answer is the way to communicate examiner that you’ve understood the demand of the question!


Introduction in UPSC Mains answer is the way to communicate examiner that you’ve understood the demand of the question! Here are the 5 ways to introduce your answer.

1. Fact/data

Eg. Discuss recent measures initiated in disaster management by the Government of India departing from the earlier reactive approach. (UPSC 2020) - Here, you can give data about disasters- 5mn people in India migrated due to disaster in 2019 (India's Environment Report)

2. Definition

Define the key term in question eg. Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting.

Eg. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context? (UPSC 2016)

Here, you can start the answer by defining the term Gender Budgeting

3. Current affairs context

Eg. Discuss whether  formation of new states in recent times is beneficial or not for the economy of India. (UPSC 2018)

Here, you can give the current context of demand for separate Vidharbha, Bundelkhand, etc.

4. Relevance of an event (especially in History questions)

eg. The Great Uprising of 1857 owes its failure as much to ideological issues as to logistical issues. Analyse.

In this question, you can write the signification of 1857 revolt in the intro

5. Background/historical reference

Again more relevant for history questions In previous question, you can write the historical background of the 1857 revolt.


Note - These are NOT the only ways to introduce your answer. You can start thinking in such frameworks to come up with a unique and eyecatching intro.


Ideas for Introduction and conclusion in UPSC Mains

  • Use objectives of 8 missions in NAPCC to introduce or conclude the answer.
  • For questions relating to schemes write the implementation agency in the intro.
    • Eg. Perform, Achieve, Trade (PAT) scheme is implemented by BEE.
  • Mention the genesis of concept in introduction
    • Eg. If the question is on Joint Forest Management, start the answer as— The Forest Rights Act, 2006 calls for JFM, which is an integrated approach that brings together the local communities, authorities and other stakeholders.
  • Nation’s journey towards $5 trillion economy and a New India.
  • here the collective “wisdom of the crowds” can be tapped.
  • Thus, ------- is a work in progress and continuous refinements have to be made for reaping its full benefits.
  • To achieve Ease of Living for citizen of New India
  • From Swachh Bharat to Sundar Bharat
  • Citizen of 'New India' shall look for Opportunity to contribute rather than Right to entitlement
  • New spirit of Independence should be imbibed in India@75
  • Though ---- seems to be less effective, possible corrective measures need to be taken for their success
  • We should use international best practices (in conclusion)
  • Bilateral relations: India-____ bilateral relations are anchored in their shared interests, mutual understanding and respect for each other’s priorities, concerns and sensitivities.
  • By delivering its objectives, _______ can become a dynamic, effective and result oriented organisation.
  • Five-S approach: Samman (Respect), Samvad (Dialogue), Sahyog (Cooperation), Shanti (Peace) and Samriddhi (Prosperity).

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