- With reference to Continental drift theory, Which of the following are major forces responsible for drifting of continents?
- Pole fleeing force
- Tidal force
- Attraction of moon and sun
- Convection currents
Choose the correct answer using the correct code given below.
a) 1,2 and 4 only
b) 1 ,3 and 4 only
c) 1 and 2 only
d) 2 and 3 only
Exp: Alfred Wegener suggested continental Drift Theory. According to Continental Drift Theory there existed one big landmass which he called Pangaea which was covered by one big ocean called Panthalassa. A sea called Tethys divided the Pangaea into two huge landmasses: Laurentia (Laurasia) to the north and Gondwanaland to the south of Tethys. Statement 1 and 2 is correct: Wegener proposed that the movement accountable for the drifting of the continents was instigated by tidal force and pole fleeing force. The polar-fleeing force relates to the rotation of the earth.
Statement 3 is incorrect: Tides are caused by the attraction of the sun and moon.
Statement 4 is incorrect: Convection currents are responsible for the movement of plates and Volcanoes. Though, most of the scholars considered these forces to be insufficient.
2. With reference to tillite, consider the following statement.
- Tillite are metamorphic rock.
- The tillite provides unambiguous evidence of paleoclimates.
Choose the incorrect statement using the code given below.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above
Exp: Statement 1 is incorrect: It is the sedimentary rock formed out of deposits of glaciers.
Statement 2 is correct: The tillite provides unambiguous evidence of paleoclimates and also of drifting of continents.
3. Consider the climate described in the paragraph:
It is characterised by dry summers and mild, wet winters. This climate zone is typically located along the western sides of continents, between roughly 30 and 40 degrees north and south of the equator. The main cause of this climate is the subtropical ridge which extends toward that hemisphere's pole during the summer and migrates toward the equator during the winter due to increasing north -south temperature differences.
Select the correct answer using the options given below:
a) Mediterranean Climate
b) British Type Climate
c) Steppe Climate
d) Natal climate
Exp: Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterised by dry summers and mild, wet winters.
The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common. Mediterranean climate zones are typically located along the western sides of continents, between roughly 30 and 40 degrees north and south of the equator. The main cause of the Mediterranean, or dry summer climate, is the subtropical ridge which extends toward that hemisphere's pole during the summer and migrates toward the equator during the winter due to increasing north–south temperature differences.
4. Consider the following statements
- All fertile soils are productive, but all productive soils are not fertile.
- The fertility of soil is measured by its ability to support life.
- Laterite soil is the most fertile soil.
Which of the above are incorrect statements?
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Exp: Soil fertility is the ability of the soil to provide all essential plant nutrients in available forms and in a suitable balance. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
Soil productivity: The capability of soil to produce specified crop yield under well-defined and specified systems of management of inputs and environmental conditions.
Soil productivity is the ability of a soil to support crop production determined by the entire spectrum of its physical, chemical and biological attributes. Soil fertility is only one aspect of soil productivity but it is a very important one. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
Alluvial soil is the most fertile soil. It is formed due to the action of water on rocks which results in its weathering. Thus, as the river flows it carries the silt along with it. The soil in the plains is constantly replenished by the recurrent floods. Hence statement 3 is incorrect.
5. Consider the following statements about alluvial fans.
- Alluvial fans are erosional features formed by rivers.
- Streams, which flow over fans, are confined to their original channel.
- Alluvial fans, in humid areas, show normally low cones with gentle slope.
Choose the correct statement using the code given below.
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 3 only
c) 2 only
d) All of the above
Exp: Statement 1 is incorrect: Alluvial fans are depositional features by river. Alluvial fans are formed when streams flowing from higher levels break into foot slope plains of low gradient. Normally a very coarse load is carried by streams flowing over mountain slopes. This load becomes too heavy for the streams to be carried over gentler gradients and gets dumped and spread as a broad low to high cone shaped deposit called alluvial fan. Statement 2 is incorrect: The streams which flow over fans are not confined to their original channels for long and shift their position across the fan forming many channels called distributaries. Statement 3 is correct: Alluvial fan-in humid areas show normally low cones with gentle slope from head to toe and high cones with steep slope in arid and semi-arid climates.
India has been a leading global economic power for over 75% of recorded economic history. Throughout much of this time, India's economic success was attributed to the workings of the market's invisible hand for wealth creation. This approach was complemented by the ethical and philosophical dimensions of trust, which were utilised to promote openness in economic transactions. Following liberalisation, India's GDP and GDP per capita experienced significant growth, coinciding with a surge in wealth creation in the stock market. Sectors that were liberalised experienced substantially greater growth rates compared to those that remained closed.
6. Which one of the following statements best reflects the most critical inference that can be made from the passage given above?
a) Per-capita income rise in India has been occasioned by industrial policies that favoured the rise of rich business classes against social-friendly entrepreneurship.
b) Pro-business policies should replace the leftover pro-crony policies that continue despite economic reforms.
c) Contemporary evidence following the liberalisation of the Indian economy support the economic model advocated in our traditional thinking.
d) GDP growth of a sector is directly proportional to the influence of invisible hand and indirectly proportional to the role of hand of trust.
Ans: (d) GDP growth of a sector is directly proportional to the influence of invisible hand and indirectly proportional to the role of hand of trust.
Gandhi’s role in the independence movement of India was aimed at securing moral regeneration of India. Gandhi never wanted India to emulate the ways of the Western Civilisation. He firmly held that the Western civilisation sought to promote consumerism which would lead us to moral decline. Moral strength could not be gained through fulfilment of material needs.
7. The author seems to argue that –
a) Gandhi was in favour of appetite for spirituality not appetite for material entities.
b) Gandhi was in favour of self-control and spirit of renunciation for the purpose of moral regeneration.
c) Gandhi was against multiplication of wants of the poor and making them consumption-mongers.
d) Gandhi was against Western civilisation since it imparts violence on environment through restless consumption.
Ans: (b) Gandhi was in favour of self-control and spirit of renunciation for the purpose of moral regeneration.
Cover the entire CSAT syllabus in 70 hours.