Previse 2024: Delhi Sultanate

Previse 2024: Delhi Sultanate

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Delhi Sultanate 

The period between 1206 A.D. and 1526 A.D. in India’s history is known as the Delhi Sultanate period. It has five dynasties as enumerated and explained below.

UPSC | The chronological order of dynasties in Delhi Sultanate is very important | Mamluk (Slave), Khilji (Khalji), Tughlaq, Saiyyad and Lodi Dynasty

Slave or Mamluk Dynasty (1206-1290 CE)

  • Qutub-ud-din Aibak was the founder of the Slave dynasty, was known as ‘lakh Baksh’ and had capital at Lahore.
    • He constructed Quwwat-ul-Islam, Adhai din ka Jhonpra and started construction of the Qutub Minar.
  • Next was Iltutmish who shifted capital to Delhi and was the real consolidator of Turkish rule in India.
    • He created Turkan-i-chahalgani.
  • Next was Razia Sultan, the 1st and only female Muslim ruler of medieval India.
  • Balban/Ulugh khan said that Sultan was God’s shadow on earth (Zil-i-Ilahi) and recipient of divine grace (Nibyabat-i-Khudai). 
    • He broke the power of the Forty i.e Turkan-i-chahalgani, and introduced the Persian festival Nawrouz.

Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320 CE)

  • Jalauddin Khalji was the founder who had a benevolent attitude towards Hindus because of the belief that the State should be based on the willing support of the governed.
    • He was murdered by son-in-law Alauddin Khalji.
  • Alauddin Khalji became Amir-i-Tuzuk (Master of Ceremonies) and Ariz-i-Mumalik (Minister of Law) during Jalauddin Khalji's reign, but he reversed Alauddin’s policy of tolerance.
    • He banned intoxicants to avoid social gathering, reorganized spy services (Barids), separated religion from politics and proclaimed “Kingship knows no kinship”.
    • Under him, Barani wrote the book ‘Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi and poets like-Amir Khusrau and Mir Hasan Dehlv were patronized. Amir Khusrau got the title of Tuti-i-Hind 
    • He constructed Alai Darwaza, Hauz Khas, Alai Minar and a new capital at Siri. he also introduced Chehra and Dagh system, and initiated market reforms.

Tughlaq (1320-1413 CE)

  • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was the founder and he built a strong fort called Tughlaqabad near Delhi. 
    • He was the 1st Sultan to start Irrigation works and his rise is documented in Amir Khusrau’s famous work “TughlaqNama”.
  • Next was Mohammad Bin Tughlaq under whom the Delhi Sultanate reached its zenith.
    • He advanced secular policies and defeated the Mongols
    • Ibn-Batuta was his contemporary and his envoy to China.
    • He built Adilabad fort and the city of Jahanpanah.
    • He set up Diwan-i-amir- kohi to extend cultivation by giving loans (taccavi loans).
    • But his blunders include transferring capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, issuing of token currency, Khorasan project to counter the Chinese and the failed Quarachi expedition.
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq adopted an appeasement policy and extended the principle of heredity to the army & nobility.
    • The Iqta system was revived and made hereditary.
    • To appease theologians, Firoz prohibited Muslim women from worship, gave concessions to theologians and made jizya a separate tax.
    • Hospitals called Dar-ul-shifa and royal factories called karkhanas were set up, Diwan -i-Bandagan or department for slaves made and Sharb or irrigation tax was imposed.
    • Malik Sarwar, a noble and wazir, asserted independence and assumed the title of Malik-us-Sharq. 
  • Nasiruddin Muhammad was the last ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty as Taimur invaded India during his reign.

Saiyyad Dynasty (1414-1451 CE)

  • It was founded by Khizr Khan, who was appointed as Governor of Multan by Timur before departing from India.
  • He died in 1421 and was succeeded by Mubarak Shah and later Muhammad Shah.
  • Last ruler Alauddin Alam Shah was the weakest and he handed over the throne to Bahlul Lodi.

Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526 CE)

  • Founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi, it was the last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate and was of Afghan origin.
  • Sikandar Lodi was the next ruler who was a contemporary of Mahmud Begarha and Rana Sanga.
    • He founded Agra and transferred the capital from Delhi.
    • He established a new yard measurement system called the Gaz-i-Sikandari but being an orthodox and a bigot, he reimposed the Jizya on Hindus.
  • Next ruler was his son, Ibrahim Lodi, who was defeated in 1526 at the Battle of Panipat.
    • This was the end of the Lodi Dynasty and Delhi sultanate, and the rise of the Mughal Empire.
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