- Indian cities today are symbolic of arenas of social contestation. Elucidate. 10
- Write a short note on the nexus of caste with industrialisation. 10
Q1. Indian cities today are symbolic of arenas of social contestation. Elucidate. 10
- Social contestation means argument, strife, struggle between distinct social groups over one’s view, beliefs or interests.
- Cities are said to be the hub of heterogeneity. Not just individuals of different places but it is an amalgamation of different cultures. This has fueled the emergence of cities as platforms of social contestation.
- Forms of contstations:
- Migration leads to heterogeneity and that further raises the feeling of differentiation between individuals and thus leading to social contestation.
- Politically fueled religious agendas create strife between masses.
- Cities are the centre of protests of agitation and protests. Various sections of the society clash with the state or with each other over their interests.
- Economic divide between masses in cities is extreme which further leads to contestation.
- Ghettoisation leads to rising enmity between different groups.
- Due to education and awareness cities also see egalitarian social movements that contest various social norms due to platforms of visibility through media.
- The contestation is not always true:
- Cities provide a platform to overcome the primordia; identities and stratification.
- People come together at the times of festivals thus maintaining harmony.
- Busy daily life in cities leaves less time for social contestation in the forms of protests.
- Contestation in cities is visible due to the presence of various mediums like media but these can be fruitful for social discourse if done in peaceful ways.
Q2. Write a short note on the nexus of caste with industrialisation. 10
- Industrialisation refers to the process that leads to replacement of animate sources of power with in-animate sources of power. Shift from cottage to mass production.
- Industrialisation has impacted every aspect of the society to a level that is conspicuous. Caste, which is a traditional form of stratification in India, here is no exception.
- Industrialisation and Caste:
- During British times industrialisation gave a chance to exploited dalits or lower castes to escape traditional bondage.
- Early capitalist class had an impact of industrialisation as they were mostly well to do Parsis, Baniyas, Brahmins etc.
- Industrialisation led to urbanisation, which acted as a catalyst for migration of discriminated caste groups from villages.
- Purity and pollution feature of caste was diluted in industrial setup due to the nature of commensality in factories.
- Industrialisation brought mechanisation, which further led to the money economy. Barter system was replaced by money thus opening of new avenues for escaping slavery caste bondage of dalits.
- It gave avenue for mobilisation thus rise of classes and now caste was not the only criteria of stratification in India.
- Division of labour was in turn the result of the market and not ascribed in the case of the caste system.
- Inter caste marriages in current times can be attributed to industrialization to a certain extent.
- Industrialisation changed the social dynamics of the caste system in India to an extent. Though everything isn't greener but whatever changes took place were mostly for the good of the caste system.