- Examine the impact of industrialization and urbanization on family structure. 20
- Distinguish between private and public patriarchy. 10
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1. Examine the impact of industrialization and urbanization on family structure. 20
- Industrialization refers to the shift from an agricultural economy to one that is based on factory production. Industrialization led to growth of urban centers and migration from rural areas to urban areas. Both processes have a significant impact on traditional family structure.
- Before industrialization, families were units of production and considered to be multifunctional.
- After industrialization and urbanization, families could not perform all the functions they had to before and some of them were taken over by other institutions.
- Families continued to reproduce only main functions and became isolated nuclear as Parsons suggested in his research.
- Family became a unit of consumption.
- Further, the industrialization demanded higher geographical mobility which led to a reduction of kinship network and the appearance of a nuclear family which was better fitted to that time.
- Families didn't need such support that they needed before from their relatives. Also the appearance of social mobility gave people opportunities to get higher qualifications and created division of labor.
- Both these processes changed not only the structure of the family but also relationships within families. Women and children were stepped aside from work in order to perform family’s functions and men were seen as breadwinners.
- However people interpret the effect of industrialization and urbanization differently.
- And if Functionalists see these changes in family structure necessary in order to cope with all the changes around and be the best fit for the society, Marxists see them differently. They see the main function of the family is reproducing the social conditions and the appearance of new forms of families with these processes will help to better reproduce labor power, give emotional support for workers and help children to socialize in the world of inequality.
- For feminists, Oakley, industrialization gave the beginning of women's primary role of caretaker and domestic labor.
2. Distinguish between private and public patriarchy. 10
- Define Patriarchy: Patriarchy is commonly described as a system of social structures and practices in which men govern, oppress and exploit women (Sylvia Walby)
- Feminist scholars espouse on concepts of public and private patriarchy as a counter to male-stream sociology
- Patriarchy is essentially lack of cooperation between men and women
- Patriarchy is universal in nature as opined by Ortner and Rosaldo
- Walby distinguishes patriarchy as Private and Public
- Dimensions of private patriarchy:
- Sexual division of labour
- Burden of child rearing disproportionately carried out by female members of the family
- Less inheritance
- Less bargaining power
- Culture of son preference
- Fasting by women
- Dimensions of public patriarchy:
- Violence against women
- Glass ceiling effect
- Cultural misogyny
- Linda Imray and Audrey Middleton say that a woman’s status itself is devalued in the public sphere. For example, we can see that female celebrities are much more scrutinized than male celebrities
- However, Michelle Rosaldo has studied Mbuti Pygmies and has found that the men and woman of Mbuti Pygmies cooperate in social life
- Constitutional value of equality.