- Unchecked population growth leads to pressure on natural and human resources. Discuss the consequences of the same. 10
- Positivists tried to make Sociology a scientific discipline. Discuss. 20
Q1. Unchecked population growth leads to pressure on natural and human resources. Discuss the consequences of the same. 10
- Earth has limited carrying capacity. And with time the population is increasing in a rampant way.
- The unchecked increase in population leads to various consequences which are summarised below:
- Malthusian hypothesis, argues that high population growth will meet its fate through positive checks by nature in forms of starvation and diseases.
- It is argued that due to the exponential growth the population would surpass the carrying capacity of the earth.
- With the rise in population poverty rises.
- Developing countries lag behind the developed countries due to unchecked population growth.
- Population has led to skewed forest land and increased land under agriculture.
- It has led to the fragmentation of land holdings in rural areas.
- People face economic hardships due to rising competition due to rising population.
- People are left with lesser opportunities of mobility.
- Development of slums in urban areas can be attributed to the rising density of individuals in urban areas.
- Solutions may include:
- Government launched schemes like Hum Do Hamare Do.
- Population control measures like surgeries, ASHA services etc.
- Sensitivising youth about the ill impacts of rising population.
- Unchecked rise in population has given rise to many issues to society. With government intervention and societal enlightenment it can be transferred into an opportunity before it turns bizarre to the society.
Q. Positivists tried to make Sociology a scientific discipline. Discuss. 20
- Positivism is an approach of studying Sociology as a discipline which aims at employing principles similar to those in natural sciences. Comte argued that Sociology is the last and most sophisticated of all the sciences as it deals with all the aspects of humanity and society.
Features of Positivism
- They argue that sociology should use the same methods and approaches that "natural" sciences like biology and physics use to study the physical world.
- It lays emphasis on behaviour that can be directly observed.
- Emphasise on understanding external realities.
- It focuses on empiricism.
- They focused on formulation of theories and universality of laws and principles, just like Science.
- Used a deductive approach just like science.
- They use quantitative method of social research
- They argue that sociological knowledge should be testable.
- They are interested in looking at society as a whole. They are interested in explaining patterns of human behaviour or general social trends.
But the Positivist approach was criticised:
- Berger argued that the facts do not fall from the sky and are developed in a particular context.
- Interpretivists argue that people’s subjective realities are complex and this demands in-depth qualitative methods.
- They over emphasised their idea of universalism, which is not possible all the time.
- The methods used by positivists are objective in nature but it is not possible to look at any matter without subjectivity.
- Positivists gave supremacy to empiricism and neglected human behaviour, which according to ethnomethodologists, interpretivists etc is of utmost important.
- Positivism has its share of criticism but that does not diminish the fact that positivism has given the much needed dynamism to Sociology as a discipline.