Sociology Daily Answer Writing (29-08-2022)

Syllabus: Stratification and Mobility, Work and Economic Life, Religion and Society, Systems of Kinship


  1. Compare the social organisation of work in slave and feudal societies.  10
  2. Elaborate on the social necessity of Religion.       10
Integrated Prelims + Mains Test Series
For UPSC Prelims and Mains 2023
UPSC PRE+MAINS Test Series (with yearlong mentorship)

Model Solutions

1. Compare the social organisation of work in slave and feudal societies. 10

Model Framework

  • Define Social Organisation of work: Patterning of economic activities which reflect the normative structure of society in the form of stratification, power relations, social mobility, DoL, etc.

Main Body:

  • Feudal system - a political arrangement in which kings and feuds were in agreement. For land and its control, feuds support the king.
  • Replaces slave system of work
  • Feudal vs slave
    • Labour: Not owned vs Owned by owner
    • Stratification: Feudal, serfs, clergy etc. Vs slave-owner
    • Activities of Production: Agriculture vs Hunting-gathering
    • Source of Power: Land vs. Slave ownership
    • Economic exchange system: barter system vs Community exchange
    • Labour rights: marginal vs none
    • Wages: mostly kind, bit cash vs Almost none
    • Relation: Patron and dependency vs owning the slave thus total surrender.
    • Significance of religion: more in feudal as it worked as an instrument of ruling class ideology. (Advanced vs. Primitive)
    • Social mobility: relatively high in feudal society (almost zero mobility in slave society)
    • In both, mostly informal types of organization. Yet more rights in the feudal MoP than slave society.


  • From feudalism it usually transformed into capitalist mode of production. In any economies, all these MOPs present in one or other form

  1. Elaborate on the social necessity of Religion. 10

Model Structure

  • The sociology of religion is concerned with how different religious institutions actually function.
  • In modern society sociologists focus on the organisation of religion which it survives.

Main Body

  • Religion as a primary source of the most deep-seated norms and values - religious practices are likely to occur in home and in some other natural settings.
  • Durkheim’s theory - religion as a major source of social solidarity and exultation. Religion provides believers with a common set of norms and values (unified system of belief) which helps to create a bond between moral communities. It shapes the behaviour of individuals towards one another.
  • Parsons theory - religion shapes the cultural system of the community - thus it plays a role in Social Integration (Langar in Gurudwara, Maata ki chowki Bhandara) and in Social Control (Fatwa in Islam).
  • Malinowski study of Trobriand islanders - religion assures continuity in the phase of discontinuity. (Alienation by stress thus people go to Ashrams)
  • People often get religion when their fundamental sense of social order is threatened by the economic hardship, loneliness, grief, physical suffering or poor health.
  • Religion acts as a force which mobilises the members in Social movements (socio religious movements - Arya samaj, Deoband movement)
  • Also mention the Dysfunctions of Religion in short –
    • Communal clashes, Social Disaster, Fundamentalism, etc.
    • Feminists view religion as a Patriarchal System that provides men with more rights than women
    • Marx views religion as a state instrument to propagate a ruling class ideology


  • Sociology helps to identify the forces which bring existence to religion and looks beyond the purely personal spiritual and psychological factors.

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