Sociology Daily Answer Writing (31-08-2022)

Socio Daily Writing

UPSC Sociology Syllabus Topics - Social Stratification; Poverty and social deprivation,


Questions

  1. Establish a cause-effect relationship between poverty and social deprivation with suitable illustrations.   10
  2. Discuss class, caste and gender as principles of social stratification.    20

Model Solutions

1. Establish a cause-effect relationship between poverty and social deprivation with suitable illustrations. 10

Model Structure
Introduction:

  • Define poverty

Main Body

  • Poverty - lack of access to basic material needs.
  • Deprivation - Inequality in access to Social goods
  • Low income → could not afford quality of goods in terms of housing, education, housing etc.
  • Thus, poverty led to deprivation.
    • E.g Dalits in India - majority poor - also poor in social indicators (education level, low in formal employment) - you can give some data
    • Blacks in the USA - relatively poorer than whites - have very low representation in politics, universities.
    • Rural poors are deprived of the economic and political opportunities.
  • Also, deprivation could result in poverty as well
    • Lack of social capital led to low awareness of opportunities, employment → Poverty
    • Poor upbringings in Afro-American homes - Blacks often have low-cost labour, facing discriminative pay etc.
    • Identity-less migrant labourers often been poor - low bargaining power.
  • Global level
    • Countries categorized as rich/poor lead to the type of treatment their citizens get.
    • Africans often face discrimination, socially deprived in India

Conclusion

  • Thus, poverty and social deprivation drives each other, a vicious cycle in work.

2. Discuss class, caste and gender as principles of social stratification. 20

Model Framework
Introduction:

  • Define stratification
  • Class as achievement criteria
  • Caste and gender as ascribed criteria.

Main Body:

  • Class as form of Stratification -
    • Marxian concept of Class structure
      • Definition - ownership of forces of production
      • Types of class
      • Relations between the classes
      • Class struggle in brief
    • Weberian Concept of Class structure
      • Definition - similar position in market situation
      • Types of classes
      • Relations
      • Class structure as a truncated pyramid.
  • Caste Stratification :-
    • Definition of caste - ascription based society.
    • Louis Dumont - Homo Hierarchicus
    • G S Ghurye
    • Weber's social honour
    • All the above highlights the caste based stratification with EXAMPLES.
  • Gender Stratification:
    • Definition of gender - socially constructed and mentally determined role differentiation between male and female.
    • Feminist: Sylvia Walby, Karuna Ahmed, Paul Willis
    • EXAMPLE

Conclusion:

  • In present day society caste class and gender are dynamic phenomena which vary between groups and regions. The life chances of individuals are decided on the basis of these three major principal status in contemporary society.

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