C7 Challenges to Social Transformation

Topics of interest for CSE

  1. Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
  2. Poverty, deprivation, and inequalities.
  3. Violence against women.
  4. Caste conflicts.
  5. Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
  6. Illiteracy and disparities in education.

C-PERKS - Change, Politics, Economy, Religion, Kinship, Stratification


  • Change - Buy local trends. Increasing protectionism.
  • Politics - Farmer protests show that mass mobilisation in agrarian economies is still powerful.
  • Economy - Top 1% own 44% of global wealth. Agrarian transition needs to be managed well to ensure inclusive and equitable growth.
  • Religion - Rising fundamentalist violence in France due to increased immigration.
  • Kinship - Rising rates of divorce and conflict due to people choosing their own partners in India.
  • Stratification - Entrenched inequality and frozen mobility. Sandel. Development of underdevelopment. India and Bharat.


22 million people displaced and of them 40% are tribals.

  • Change - Forest Rights Act 2006 provides Gram Sabha the right to refuse. Vedanta project scrapped in OD.
  • Politics - 46% of Patta rights of tribals denied.
  • Economy - Double whammy, displaced to facilitate development and then excluded from the benefits of that development.
  • Religion - Destroys little traditions rooted in region.
  • Kinship - People loose contact with close relatives due to displacement.
  • Stratification - Rise in homelessness, poverty and lack of adequate compensation. Become migrant labour in cities. Live in slums.

Environmental Issues

BGREI - Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India

  • Change - Agricultural commercialisation leading to soil stress, tech treadmill and increasing debt trap.
  • Politics - Precautionary principle by courts, NCAP, Paris deal.
  • Economy - Environmental adaptation costing. Loss and damage as part of the Paris deal.
  • Religion - Sacred groves under threat. Navdanya as eco-feminism.
  • Kinship -
  • Stratification - Green


  • Change - 4th wave feminism. Me too movement.
  • Politics - 12% in Parliament. AG says more female justices needed.
  • Economy - 25% wage gap. 15% owners in agri, 65% labour.
  • Religion - Sabarimala verdict uphold human dignity over religious freedom.
  • Kinship - Divorce rate of 1.3%. NCRB: Married women 17% of suicides. Jesse Bernard.
  • Stratification - Patriarchal mindset - SC judge asks rapist to visit victim.


  • 10th Agri Census in 2015 found that 86% of all farmers are small and marginal.
  • Average landholding in India is 1.08 ha and declining.
  • Change - Commercial agriculture leading to increasing debt for farmers.
  • Politics - Social programmes like PMAY, NFSA, MGNREGS are core promises.
  • Economy - Bhagwati Sen debate on top down or bottom up development. Covid forced bottom up approach.
  • Religion -
  • Kinship -
  • Stratification -


  • From 2015-19 PB Govt has rejected almost 60% of cases of farmer suicide as ineligible.
  • Change -Politics -Economy -Religion -Kinship -Stratification


  • Oxfam Poverty report 2018 said that the top 1% of India cornered more than 70% of the total wealth generated in the year.
  • Change -Politics -Economy -Religion -Kinship -Stratification -

Caste conflicts

  • The best criminal policy is a good social policy - Franz von Liszt
  • Change - Oliver Mendelsohn. Forms of Dalit atrocities changing.
  • Politics - AJGAR castes ignoring conflicts and coming together to grab power. MNS.
  • Economy -
  • Religion -
  • Kinship -
  • Stratification - Caste based stratification still strong as recent case of Dalit beaten to death in UP for riding a horse in his wedding shows.


Change -Politics -Economy -Religion -Kinship -Stratification -

Religious revival

Change -Politics -Economy -Religion -Kinship -Stratification -


French model of secularism - laicite.

Change -Politics -Economy -Religion -Kinship -Stratification -

Ethnic Conflicts

Change -Politics -Economy -Religion -Kinship -Stratification -


  • Change - 90% literacy in India in 18-24 age group. But low learning outcomes ASER report.
  • Politics - HR, RJ laws that makes matriculation necessary for PRI elections. Aimed to push literacy. 4 MPs in 17th LS 5th pass.
  • Economy -  Huebler: Positive correlation between literacy and GDP growth.
  • Religion - Illiteracy at 32% in muslims, 26% average. Jains 95% and Christians 85% literate.
  • Kinship - SRS: TFR in illiterate women touches 3. Graduates - 1.7. NFHS: literacy delays marriage.
  • Stratification - Excluded from credentialed economic market. EO Wright. Illiteracy in women at 34% as compared to 18% men. Literacy in Dalits at 66% compared to 74% average.

Disparities in Education

  • Rakesh Maurya - phenomenological study systematic exclusion of Dalit students in UP colleges.
  • Change - Covid19 pushed digital education to limits. Infrastructure inadequate. Case of Aishwarya Reddy.
  • Politics - NEP2020 aiming to make education more responsive and skill oriented.
  • Economy - Low skilling rate in India, at 2.5%. Demographic dividend may not be fully realised.
  • Religion - Sachar Committee says that muslims have lowest literacy rate as a religious community.
  • Kinship - NFHS4 data shows that increasing education delays marriage age for women.
  • Stratification - Development in India has favoured the urban educated groups. Y Singh.

FACTS:Urbanisation: Isher Judge Ahluwalia

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