UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing (02-09-2022)

UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing

GS 2 - Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations


Questions

  1. Improving the representation of women in the judiciary can ensure a more balanced and empathetic approach towards justice especially in cases involving sexual violence. Discuss. (10 marks)
  2. In the 21st century, India needs to weigh the relationship with the Gulf countries not merely through economic but strategic prism. Discuss. (250 words)
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Model Solutions

1. Improving the representation of women in the judiciary can ensure a more balanced and empathetic approach towards justice especially in cases involving sexual violence. Discuss. (10 marks)

Model Structure
Introduction

  • Recently CJI supported the idea of 50% Judges in SC or
  • Only 10 women have become judges in the apex court till date.

Main Body

  • How women in judiciary will ensure fair justice delivery -
    • Motivates More Women to Seek Justice: Higher numbers, and greater visibility, of women judges can increase the willingness of women to seek justice and enforce their rights through the courts.
    • Women will feel more confident to approach the judiciary
    • They can open mindedly and without fear put forth their grievances
    • Even in cases where women are not involved, women judge can put forth a different perspective than the male counterpart
      • Diversity on the bench would definitely bring in alternative and inclusive perspectives to statutory interpretations
    • Increase Judicial Reasoning: Increased judicial diversity enriches and strengthens the ability of judicial reasoning to encompass and respond to varied social contexts and experiences.
  • Way Forward
    • Changing Patriarchal Mindset
      • Unless women are empowered, justice cannot be fair
    • Provision of Reservation: It is high time to debate about reservation to women in judiciary

Conclusion

  • To be truly diverse, the Indian judiciary would need representation of judges from not only different gender identities, including trans and non-binary but also different caste, socioeconomic, religious, and regional backgrounds.

2. In the 21st century, India needs to weigh the relationship with the Gulf countries not merely through economic but strategic prism. Discuss. (250 words)

**Model Structure **
Introduction

  • For decades, India saw the Gulf countries largely from the economic prism, as a source of oil and a destination for labour exports. However, over the last few years, this economic prism has morphed into a strategic embrace.

Main Body

  • Transformation of Gulf Region
    • No Longer Exclusive Petro-States: The Gulf states are no longer seen as a collection of petro-states, now they have established a strong structure of finance capital built on the massive accumulation of oil revenues.
      • This has given rise to what is today called “Khaleeji” or Gulf capitalism.
    • Khaleeji Capitalism: It is a concept which tracks the rise of large conglomerates and sovereign wealth funds in the Gulf.
      • It is due to this capitalism model that the gulf countries dominate several regional sectors — from banking and finance to infrastructure and logistics, from agribusiness and real estate to retail to telecom.
    • Moving Towards Modernisation: Gulf countries, in the present times, seek to reduce the heavy hand of religion on social life, expand the rights of women, widen religious freedoms, promote tolerance, and develop a national identity that is not tied exclusively to religion.
      • The UAE has been the leader in this regard. It has initiated reforms including the decriminalisation of alcohol use, permission for cohabitation among unmarried couples, criminalisation of honour crimes against women, and the institution of long-term visas.
    • De-hyphenation of India-Pakistan: Today, the Gulf countries are eager to build strong and independent political ties with India, without getting affected by the India-Pakistan relations.
  • New Opportunities for India
    • Shielding India’s Economic Interest: First and foremost, Indian foreign policy should shield India’s interests in the post-pandemic turbulence.
      • Due to economic instability caused by the pandemic, the Gulf countries are considering cutting back on foreign labour.
      • India should ensure that the Indian expatriates will not be affected by this.
    • Focusing Beyond Oil: There is a need to focus on the new and long-term possibilities for economic cooperation with the Gulf countries, which is looking at a future beyond oil.
      • The Gulf states have embarked on massive economic diversification and are investing in a variety of new projects including renewable energy, higher education, technological innovation, smart cities, and space commerce.
      • India also needs to tap into the possibilities of Gulf capital for its own economic development. The big gap between the investments that the Gulf is ready to offer and India’s ability to absorb needs to be reduced.
      • In 2015, the UAE committed to investing $75 billion in India. However, there is still a large gap facilitating that scale of investments.
    • Leveraging Gulf-Israel Normalisation: Earlier this year, UAE and Bahrain have normalised relations with Israel. This provides an opportunity for India to increase economic and technological engagement with Israel.
    • Getting Along With Khaleeji Capitalism: With the rise of Khaleeji capitalism, the Gulf countries today deliver economic and security assistance to friendly states, build ports and infrastructure, acquire military bases and broker peace between warring parties and states.
    • The UAE currently chairs the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) and has been eager to work with India in developing joint infrastructure projects.
    • India needs to bring scale and depth to its regional initiatives on connectivity and security in the Indian Ocean.

Conclusion

  • The Middle East has become more multipolar, with power diffused among a variety of regional and extra-regional actors. Within this mix, the rise of modern values and Khaleeji Capitalism in the gulf countries make the case for India to discard outdated perceptions of the Gulf and seize the new strategic possibilities with the region.

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