- Discuss the role of the Competition Commission of India in containing the abuse of dominant position by the Multinational Corporations in india. Refer to the recent decisions. (10)
- E-governance, as a critical tool of governance, has ushered in effectiveness, transparency and accountability in governments. What inadequacies hamper the enhancement of these features? (10)
1. Discuss the role of the Competition Commission of India in containing the abuse of dominant position by the Multinational Corporations in india. Refer to the recent decisions. (10)
Core Demand: Discuss how Competition Commission of India uses its mandate to prevent unhealthy practices by big companies. Substantiate the arguments by using recent decisions.
- Contextual- Competition Commission of India is a regulatory authority which ensures fair competition, prevents anti-competitive practices and promotes consumer welfare.
- Definition based- Competition Commission of India is a statutory and a quasi judicial body which enforces the Competition Act 2002.
The role of the Competition Commission of India in preventing the abuse of dominant position by the Multinational Corporations includes-
- Ensure fair and healthy competition for inclusive growth. For example, CCI fined Whatsapp in 2023 for its privacy policies and imposed a fine on Google in 2022 for abusing its dominance in the play store.
- Investigation and enforcement of allegations of abuse by MNCs. Penalty on tyre manufacturers like MRF ltd for cartelisation and contravening the provisions of the Act.
- Regulation and monitoring. For eg- the inquiries against Zomato, Swiggy, BookMyShow etc.
- Market assessment and analysis to identify sectors where dominant positions can be misused. In 2021, Amazon was fined for abusing its dominant position in India’s online retail market.
- International Cooperation
- Give opinion on issues related to competition.
- Undertake competition advocacy by creating public awareness.
But there are few issues which remain in dealing with the MNCs. some of them are-
- Legislation not updated with present time.
- Lack of expertise.
- Financial crunch.
- Digital market definitions are vague
- Competition Commission of India is a vital guardian of fair competition in the Indian market by its vigilant enforcement of antitrust laws to bring in a competitive business landscape.
- There is a need for a new up-to-date competition law for present day issues like data privacy, deep discounting, predatory acquisitions etc which are a result of artificial intelligence, AI etc.
2. E-governance, as a critical tool of governance, has ushered in effectiveness, transparency and accountability in governments. What inadequacies hamper the enhancement of these features? (10)
Core Demand: Briefly enumerate the importance of e-governance in bringing effectiveness, transparency and accountability in governments. Also discuss the issues in furthering them.
- Definition based- E-Governance involves application of information and communication technology to ensure better delivery of government services, transactions and information exchange.
- Contextual- E-governance or electronic governance is the application of information and communication technology in governance which has brought in effectiveness, transparency and accountability in governments.
Role of e-governance in ensuring effectiveness, transparency and accountability in governance is huge as it brings in:
- Efficiency and accessibility by streamlining administrative processes and reducing bureaucracy and paperwork.
- Transparency, by providing easy access to information, budgets, policies, and decisions.
- Accountability as the officials can be held responsible for their actions.
- Reduced corruption as the digital transactions and records are less prone to manipulation.
- Improved citizen engagement.
- Cost reduction in administrative processes.
- Better service delivery by reducing delays.
But there are some challenges which affect the enhancement of these features like-
- Digital divide which can exclude marginalized communities.
- Cybersecurity risks which can compromise the privacy and security of citizen information.
- Infrastructure constraints like inadequate IT infrastructure, including internet connectivity and power supply hinders accessibility in rural areas.
- Privacy concerns.
- Digital skills gap in the government employees.
- Interoperability, maintenance and upkeep.
- Lack of financial resources.
- Accessibility and inclusivity due to cultural and linguistic diversity.
- e-Governance has gained momentum in recent years but the above-mentioned issues need to be addressed by working on high-speed internet by using 5G technology, better cybersecurity and skill upgradation
- Recommendations of 2nd ARC on e-governance need to be considered which include business process re-engineering, protecting critical information infrastructure assets and better monitoring and evaluation.