UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing - 13 October (GS 2)


  1. ‘Virus of Conflict is affecting the functioning of the SCO’. In the light of the above statement point out the role of India in mitigating problems. (10)
  2. Indian diaspora has scaled new heights in the West. Describe its economic and political benefits for India. (10)

Model Solutions

1. ‘Virus of Conflict is affecting the functioning of the SCO’.
In the light of the above statement point out the role of India in mitigating problems. 10

Model Structure

  • India recently concluded a virtual summit of SCO in 2023, in which Iran was added as a new member.
  • The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was primarily formed to foster cooperation in economic and security matters among its member states. However, recent years have seen the emergence of conflicts among member nations, potentially hampering its collaborative spirit. As a major regional player, India has both stakes and responsibilities in the functioning of the SCO.

Main Body:
Conflicts affecting the functioning of SCO

  • Conflict between Central Asian Countries
    • Border clashes at Tajikistan-Kyrgyzstan border
    • Access to hydrocarbons
  • India- China rivalry
    • Doklam standoff
    • BRI (Belt and Road Initiative) Vs Asia-Africa growth corridor,
  • India- Pakistan conflict related to a boundary dispute, cross-border terrorism
    • Militancy in Kashmir
  • Pakistan-Iran
    • Shia-Sunni issue
    • Border instability
  • China-Russia
    • Border dispute

India's Role in Addressing SCO Conflicts:

  • Diplomatic Channels:
    • Example: India has often played a mediating role, such as during the Korean War and the Suez Crisis. India can utilise similar diplomacy to mediate conflicts within the SCO, esp. Tajikistan-Kyrgyzstan.
  • Economic Cooperation:
    • Example: India's proposal for a consortium on the Chabahar Port project, which has the potential to involve multiple nations, showcases its ability to lead collaborative economic projects within the SCO framework.
  • Joint Military Exercises:
    • Example: India's participation in SCO's 'Peace Mission' military drills demonstrates its commitment to regional security and cooperation.
  • Cultural Diplomacy:
    • Example: The "Connect Central Asia" policy is an initiative by India to promote cultural and academic linkages. Such efforts can be amplified within the SCO to bridge misunderstandings.
  • Bilateral Engagements:
    • Example: The informal summits India held with China, such as in Wuhan and Mamallapuram, reflect a proactive approach to address and preemptively resolve potential conflicts. This bilateral approach can be extended to other SCO members, including Pakistan.
  • Promoting Multilateralism:
    • Example: India's consistent emphasis on the role and principles of the United Nations during international summits can serve as a model for promoting adherence to international norms within the SCO.


  • India has showcased its potential to play a pivotal role in the SCO through historical diplomatic interventions and contemporary initiatives. By extending these efforts, India can help ensure that the organisation remains a platform for cooperation and mutual trust.

2. Indian diaspora has scaled new heights in the West.
Describe its economic and political benefits for India. (10)


  • Example-based intro particularly from West (Rishi Sunak, Sundar Pichai etc.).
  • Define diaspora
  • Data about Indian Diaspora

Main Body:
Achievements of the Indian Diaspora in the West:

  • Technology:
    • Notable figures like Sundar Pichai (CEO of Google) and Satya Nadella (CEO of Microsoft) represent the Indian diaspora's strong presence in Silicon Valley.
  • Medicine:
    • Indian-origin professionals, such as Dr. Vivek Murthy (former Surgeon General of the U.S.), have made significant contributions in healthcare.
  • Academia:
    • Nobel laureate Abhijit Banerjee showcases the diaspora's influence in global academic research.
  • Politics:
    • Individuals like Kamala Harris (U.S. Vice President) and Canada's ministers Harjit Sajjan and Navdeep Bains highlight the diaspora's political ascent.
  • Entertainment:
    • Figures like Riz Ahmed in Hollywood and authors like Jhumpa Lahiri represent Indian-origin success in arts and literature.
  • Business:
    • Leaders like Indra Nooyi (former CEO of PepsiCo) exemplify the diaspora's impact in the corporate world.
  • Activism:
    • Activists like Vanita Gupta, appointed as the U.S. Associate Attorney General, underline the community's role in social justice movements.

Economic Benefits for India from its Diaspora in the West:

  • Remittances: India, as a top recipient, garnered over $83 billion in remittances in 2019, with a significant chunk from the West.
  • Investments: Prominent Indian-origin entrepreneurs in regions like Silicon Valley actively invest in India's tech ecosystem.
  • Skill Transfer: Collaborations between Indian-origin professionals in the West and Indian institutions boost joint research and innovation.
  • Tourism: The diaspora promotes India as a tourist destination, enhancing foreign exchange earnings.

Political Benefits:

  • Soft Power: Figures like Sundar Pichai and Satya Nadella elevate India's global image, enhancing its soft power.
  • Diplomatic Leverage: The influential diaspora lobbies for India's interests, evident in milestones like the US-India Civil Nuclear Agreement.
  • Global Voice: Diaspora members in global institutions represent India in international discussions.
  • Cultural Diplomacy: The diaspora's promotion of Indian festivals in the West fosters cultural exchange and understanding.


  • The achievements of the Indian diaspora in the West significantly benefit India, enhancing its economic prospects and strengthening its global political stance.

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