UPSC Mains Daily Answer Writing - 19 September (GS 1)


1. Bring out the socio-economic effects of the introduction of railways in different countries of the world.                (10)

2. Discuss the consequences of climate change on the food security in tropical countries.       (10)

Model Solutions

1. Bring out the socio-economic effects of the introduction of railways in different countries of the world. 10

Core Demand: Impact of introduction of railways in various parts of the world.

Model structure

  • The introduction of railways in the 19th century represented a watershed moment in global development. As rail networks expanded, they revolutionised transportation and triggered profound socio-economic transformations in many regions.

Main Body:
Economic Effects:

  • Expansion of Markets:
    • USA: Completing the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 allowed for faster movement of goods, making perishables like beef accessible to distant markets.
    • India: Railways facilitated the transportation of agricultural products, such as tea from Assam, to ports like Calcutta, boosting exports.
  • Stimulation of Industries:
    • Britain: The demand for locomotives and rails led to a surge in the iron and steel industry, with places like Sheffield becoming industrial hubs.
    • Russia: The development of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the late 19th and early 20th centuries spurred growth in the metallurgical and coal industries.
  • Employment Opportunities:
    • South Africa: The construction of railways, especially during the diamond mining boom in Kimberley in the late 1800s, created jobs but often under exploitative conditions.
    • Canada: The Canadian Pacific Railway, completed in 1885, employed thousands, including many Chinese immigrants, although they faced discrimination and hazardous working conditions.
      Socio-Cultural Effects:
  • Mobility and Migration:
    • USA: The Homestead Act of 1862, coupled with railway expansion, encouraged settlers to move westward, leading to significant demographic shifts.
    • Australia: Railways facilitated the movement of people to interior regions, aiding in the colonisation and development of places like Queensland.
  • Urbanisation and Development of New Towns:
    • USA: Railroads played a pivotal role in the growth of cities like Chicago, turning it from a small town into a major transportation hub.
    • Brazil: Campinas and Ribeirão Preto grew significantly due to railway-induced coffee exports.
  • Colonial Exploitation:
    • Congo: Under King Leopold II's rule, railways were used to extract rubber and ivory, leading to the exploitation and death of millions of Congolese.
    • Kenya: The British constructed the Uganda Railway, employing Indian labourers under harsh conditions, leading to a significant Indian diaspora in East Africa.
  • Spread of Ideas and Education:
    • Japan: The introduction of railways during the Meiji period facilitated the spread of Western ideas, leading to modernisation and industrialisation.
    • Mexico: Railways played a role in disseminating revolutionary ideas, influencing events like the Mexican Revolution of 1910.
      Railways reshaped global economies and societies, promoting growth and exchange. However, in colonial settings, they also facilitated exploitation. Their vast influence highlights their pivotal role in modern history.

2. Discuss the consequences of climate change on the food security in tropical countries. 10
Model Structure

  • As climate change impacts tropical countries more, there is a huge impact on availability, accessibility, and stability of the world's food supply because about 80% of the population in this area is affected by it. OR
  • Due to warming of our planet and the ongoing shifts in weather patterns, the ability to produce, access, and distribute food is increasingly compromised thus affecting overall food security in tropical countries.

Main body

Various consequences of climate change on the food security in tropical countries include-

  • Reduced crop yields.
  • Total crop failure in case of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods etc.
  • Increased pest and disease pressure in warmer temperatures.
  • Water scarcity.
  • Disruption of fishing communities due to increased frequency and intensity of cyclones.
  • Loss of biodiversity.
  • Food price volatility.
  • Migration and conflict.


  • There is a need for urgent action to reduce climate change's impact on food security and promote sustainable agriculture for the well-being of current and future generations. OR
  • Implementing sustainable agriculture, reducing emissions, and adapting to changing conditions are essential steps to safeguarding the world's food supply and ensuring a resilient future for all.

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