- Why is the world today confronted with a crisis of availability of and access to freshwater resources? (10)
- How are fjords formed? Why do they constitute some of the most picturesque areas of the world? (10)
Why is the world today confronted with a crisis of availability of and access to freshwater resources? (10)
- Only 2.5% of total water on the planet is freshwater which is essential for drinking, agriculture, industry, and ecosystem needs. This indicates that their responsible management and conservation is essential for sustainability. OR
- The crisis of freshwater resources is because of increasing demand, pollution, climate change, and unsustainable practices which threaten the ecosystems, communities, and economies worldwide. OR
- The depletion of freshwater resources is because of unsustainable extraction, pollution, and climate-related impacts which are diminishing the availability of this vital resource.
The crisis of availability of and access to freshwater resources is due to many factors like-
- Population Growth.
- Climate Change.
- Over-extraction for agriculture, industry, and urban areas.
- Pollution from agricultural runoff, industrial discharges etc.
- Deforestation which disrupts the natural water cycle.
- Land use changes like urbanization.
- Water Mismanagement due to poor governance, lack of regulations, and inadequate infrastructure.
- Inequitable access due to socioeconomic disparities.
- Depletion of freshwater resources must be addressed by sustainable management, conservation, and responsible consumption practices to ensure global well-being. OR
- Proactive steps like rainwater harvesting, watershed management, river interlinking, Jal Shakti Abhiyaan etc must be promoted to address the depletion of freshwater resources.
2. How are fjords formed? Why do they constitute some of the most picturesque areas of the world? (10)
- Fiord or fjord is a narrow and steep-sided inlet created by glaciers and are formed in areas when one end of a deep glacial trough is filled with ocean water. OR
- Fjords are geologic formations created as a result from the interplay of glaciers, tectonic activity, and sea-level changes, carving dramatic, steep-sided inlets along coastal landscapes.
They constitute some of the most picturesque areas of the world due to elements like-
- Steep cliffs adorned with lush vegetation and cascading waterfalls.
- Crystal clear waters.
- Glacial blue ice.
- Snow-Capped peaks.
- Serene inlets ideal for boating and wildlife observation.
- Rich biodiversity including whales, seals, and seabirds.
- Cultural heritage.
- Fjords have huge ecological, recreational, and cultural value which makes them vital for biodiversity, tourism, and local communities, emphasizing the need for their preservation. OR
- Fjords provide benefits like fostering biodiversity and supporting fisheries to providing breathtaking landscapes and recreational opportunities which makes their conservation indispensable.