- The Great Uprising of 1857 owes its failure as much to ideological issues as to logistical issues. Analyse. (Answer in 150 words) 10
- “Globalisation has impacted both the rural and urban areas in India.” Do you agree with this statement? Explain with examples. (Answer in 250 words) 15
1. The Great Uprising of 1857 owes its failure as much to ideological issues as to logistical issues. Analyse. (10 marks)
- In brief, bring out the significance of the historic 1857 revolt.
Causes of failure of the Revolt-
- Logistical Issues (elaborate 1/2 lines each on following points)-
- Narrow territorial base -Confined to North and Central India only.
- Poorly organised
- Indian leaders lacked organisation and planning. The rebels were poorly organised.
- The uprisings in different parts of the country were uncoordinated. Often the sepoys behaved in an uncontrolled manner.
- The rebel leaders were no match for the British soldiers. Most of its leaders thought only of their own interest.
- No national leader emerged to coordinate the movement and give it purpose and direction.
- Rani Lakshmi Bai, Tantya Tope and Nana Saheb were courageous but were not good military generals. The rebels were lacking in discipline and a central command and they could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its strategy skillfully.
- Lack of proper arms and equipment
- The rebels were short of weapons and finances. Whatever few weapons existed, were old and outdated. In many areas, rebels fought with swords and spears which were no match for the sophisticated and modern weapons of the British.
- The telegraphic system and postal communication helped the British to speed up their operation. The English mastery of the sea enabled them to get timely help from England and crush the revolt ruthlessly.
- Ideological Issues
- Lack of unified vision and ideology
- The prominent leaders of rebellion like Nana Saheb, Begum of Awadh, Rani of Jhansi, etc., did not possess any unified programme.
- There were diverse elements among the rebels with different ideology, plan and motive. Most of the leaders of the revolt were fighting for personal gains and lacked a coherent idea for modern India. Modern nationalism had not yet evolved in India. In fact, it was a concept unknown to the people.
- Lack of unity
- While sepoys of the Bengal army were revolting, some soldiers in Punjab fought on the side of the British to crush these rebellions.
- The Zamindars of Bengal Presidency were the creation of the British. They acted as break-waters to storm . Awadh Taluqdars also backed off, once promises were made by the British to restore their land and titles.
- The modern educated Indians also did not support the revolt because, in their view, the revolt was backwards-looking.
- Lack of unity in the ranks of rebels themselves. Their leaders were suspicious and jealous of each other and often indulged in petty quarrels. The Begam of Awadh, for example, quarrelled with Maulvi Ahmdullah, and the Mughal princes with the sepoy-generals.
- Thus, selfishness and the narrow perspective of the leaders suppressed the strength of the revolt and prevented its consolidation.
- By the end of 1859, the revolt was suppressed and the British authority over India was firmly reestablished. The revolt had finally failed. However, the revolt is remembered for the valour and the courage of its rebels. Even though they failed to achieve their objective they succeeded in sowing the seeds of nationalism among the Indians and paved the way for the future struggle for independence.
2. “Globalisation has impacted both the rural and urban areas in India.” Do you agree with this statement? Explain with examples. (15 marks)
- Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange
- Impact of globalization on Indian rural society
- Commercialization of agriculture: from sustenance farming. This has been successful only with farmers having large tracts of land.
- Expansion of agro-industries: Increased crop yield has led to development of agro-processing industries which help in adding value to the products and increasing their shelf life. E.g.; Tomato Ketchup, Potato chips etc.
- Wider use of information, communication and technologies: Agricultural extension techniques like Kisan TV, sms about weather conditions has helped farmers plan better. Initiatives like e-Nam have helped farmers get better prices in certain areas.
- Increased Mechanization, better inputs: Mechanization like use of tractors, harvesters, tillers has eased the job. High yield variety seeds, fertilizers have given better yield as seen during Green Revolution
- Socio-economic development: With telemedicine and tele education, people are able to access the health and education facilities at the remotest areas. Adult literacy has helped in fighting for their rights.
- MSMEs: There has been a rise of MSMEs with women entrepreneurs heading it.
- Changes in Land-Use patterns
- Internal labour migration: Labour migration to cities from rural areas in search of employment
- Increasing privatization of resources: Rural population is still suffering from unemployment as rural labour is mostly uneducated and unskilled. Machines and latest technologies have reduced the number of manpower a lot
- Loss of jobs and Displacement: Due to mechanization, women are the worst sufferers. When big-ticket projects like Dams, Roads, and Mining come up, people are displaced making them internal refugees.
- Increased inequality: Regional and sectional disparity due to only a few reaping the benefits.
- No Behavioural changes: Open defecation still present, caste discriminations are still prevalent.
- Impact of globalization on Indian urban society
- Increased Urbanization: It has been estimated that by 2050 more than 50% of India’s population will live in cities. The boom of the services sector and city-centric job creation has led to increasing rural to urban migration.
- Increased job opportunities: Due to the inflow of MNCs, FDIs, people have a wide choice of job opportunities provided they have the requisite skills. Startups like Ola, Swiggy etc. have revolutionized the Gig-Economy. Development of Industries have also provided jobs.
- Higher Per capita income: Employees are paid well albeit lesser than the global pay levels.
- Enhanced lifestyle: Due to higher Per Capita Income and a wide array of facilities available from which the consumer can choose. It has raised the quality of life of many.
- Better infrastructure: In terms of education, health, transport available to people. This has, in turn, enhanced the agglomeration of economies leading to industrial belts, IT parks, SEZ, CEZ etc.
- Rapid Digitization: For faster and ease of connectivity, most of the services are digitized. This also increases the awareness of citizens in terms of rights, happenings around the world etc. On the Governmental side, there is more accountability and transparency and faster delivery of services.
- Family Structure: breaking of joint families into nuclear ones. The western influence of individualism has led to an aspirational generation of youth. Concepts of national identity, family, job and tradition are changing rapidly and significantly.
- Marriage Values: Similarly, marriages have also lost their values. It is very much evident from the increasing number of divorce cases and the extra-marital affairs reported every now and then.
- McDonaldization: A term denoting the increasing rationalization of the routine tasks of everyday life. It becomes manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant. McDonaldization is a reconceptualization of rationalization, or moving from traditional to rational modes of thought, and scientific management.
- Walmartization: A term referring to profound transformations in regional and global economies through the sheer size, influence, & power of the big-box department store Walmart. It can be seen with the rise of big businesses which have nearly killed the small traditional businesses.
- Rise in Lifestyle diseases: Due to reduced physical activity, increased habits of liquor and smoking etc.
- Urban Sprawl: Increasing slums, unplanned urbanizations are on the rise which is a ticking time-bomb.
- Thus globalisation has made profound positive and negative changes in both urban and rural India.