Q1. (a) “Corruption is the manifestation of the failure of core values in the society. ” In your opinion what measures can be adopted to uplift the core values in the society? (10)
(b) In the context of work environment, differentiate between ‘coercion’ and ‘undue influence’ with suitable examples. (10)
Q1. (a) “Corruption is the manifestation of the failure of core values in the society. ” In your opinion what measures can be adopted to uplift the core values in the society? 10
- Quote- “It is not power, but fear that corrupts. Fear of losing power corrupts those who wield it and fear of the scourge of power corrupts those who are subject to it.”
- Report: Corruption Perception Index- India ranks 85/180
Corruption is the manifestation of the failure of core values in the society (write 2-3 points)
- ‘The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil, but by those who watch them without doing anything.’
- Corruption is a major problem of the country due to inaction of people therefore they became equal participants of this evil practice. For eg: giving or taking bribes is an offence.
Measures can be adopted to uplift the core values of the society
- Primary socialization at home- Inculcate the values of honesty and courage
- Secondary socialization at schools: Promoting Public service values for eg: Participation in NSS, Moral education highlighted in NEP, 2020
- Role of Leaders/ Role models: Promoting honest role models for eg: Gandhi ji, Dr. Kalam, Ashok Khemka etc
- Strengthening Legal Frameworks: Prevention of corruption Act, Whistleblower Protection
- Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Encourage businesses to adopt ethical business practices and CSR initiatives that benefit society.
- Cultural and Religious values: For eg: learnings from Bhagvad Geeta
- Ethical training and civil society engagement
- Forward looking quote towards fighting corruption
- “Where do the evils like corruption arise from? It comes from the neverending greed. The fight for a corruption-free ethical society will have to be fought against this greed and replace it with ‘what can I give’ spirit”- A. P. J. Abdul Kalam..
- Recommendation of Nolan committee, ARC report, Implementation of law etc
(b) In the context of work environment, differentiate between ‘coercion’ and ‘undue influence’ with suitable examples. 10
- The term work environment is used to describe the surrounding conditions in which an employee operates. The work environment can be composed of physical conditions, such as office temperature, or equipment, such as personal computers.
- It can also be related to factors such as work processes or procedures The work environment can involve the social interactions at the workplace, including interactions with peers, subordinates, and managers.
- Employees are entitled to a work environment that is free from harassment.
Coercion occurs when one party forces the other party to enter into a contract through the use of threats or force.
Undue influence occurs when one party takes advantage of the other party’s weakness or dependence to persuade them to enter into a contract.
Section 15 of the Indian Contract Act defines coercion as the use of force or threat to make a person enter into a contract against their will.
Section 16 of the Indian Contract Act defines undue influence as any kind of influence that is used by one party to dominate the will of the other party and force them to enter into a contract.
Generally by a party in authority but can be done by anyone.
It occurs when one party is in a position of power or authority over the other, and uses that position to obtain an unfair advantage.
Coercion makes the contract voidable at the option of the party whose consent was obtained by coercion.
If undue influence is proven, the contract is considered voidable at the option of the party who was influenced
This could involve physical violence, the threat of harm, or even economic pressure.
Undue influence, on the other hand, occurs when one party takes advantage of their position of power or trust to influence another party’s decision-making. For example, a doctor who convinces a patient to enter into a contract to purchase medical services that they do not actually need could be said to have exerted undue influence.
Coercion is penalised under IPC
It is an unlawful means of obtaining consent but not penalised
- You can mention about ethical work culture- Work culture is considered ethical when there is equality, transparency, honesty, low wage gap and fairness in the procedure
- Coercion and undue influence are both factors that can affect the validity of a contract, whereas free consent is a necessary requirement for a contract to be considered valid.