Table of contents
Use these facts to improve your content for UPSC Mains answers, for any of the four general studies papers and even for your optional (selectively valid).
SDG 1 - No poverty
- Oxfam report: 70% of wealth generated in 2018 taken by top 1%.
- World Bank defines extreme poverty as people living on less than $1.25/day.
- Confluence of poverty, hunger, disability and disease.
- Tendulkar committee says 22% of people BPL in 2012.
- UN: India lifted 270 million people out of poverty in a decade till 2016.
SDG 2 - Zero hunger
- Global Hunger Index - India at 94/107 nations. Dealing with acute hunger.
- India has 196 million hungry people. 22% of global burden of hunger.
- NFHS 4: 35% of all children in India underweight. NFHS 5 says worse now. Covid came after.
- UNDP: India is home to 50 million stunted children - 30% of global burden.
- UNDP: India is home to 20 million wasted children - 40% of the global burden.
- Studies: 15% of children are overweight or obese. 2nd largest incidence after China.
- Can link to aspirational district - aspirational age group.
- Narrow food security based approach.
- Unbalanced diets with focus on cereals.
- Lack of adequate up to date data.
- Fiscal constraints. Under utilisation of allocated funds.
- Lack of nutrition awareness.
- Socio-cultural issues: SCs have a higher prevalence of hunger.
- Increasing awareness about nutrition. FSSAI awareness initiatives.
- Fortified foods like iodised salt and golden rice.
- Regular NFHS to ensure up to data stats.
- Improved sanitation and healthcare.
- Countering childhood obesity through fat tax initiatives.
- Nutrition dense foods in MDM scheme and ICDS.
SDG 3 - Good health and well being
- SRS data: MMR at 113. SDG target of below 70.
- Lancet data: U5MR at 42 per 1000. SDG target of 25.
- India Disease Burden Report: NCDs contribute to 60% of all deaths in India with cardiac diseases being the leader.
- India burdened with 486 mil Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) in 2017. 17% of total available. 75% in rural areas.
- Gorakhpur hospital deaths due to negligence. 1500 children died in 2017.
SDG 4 - Quality education
- 95% enrollment in primary education. Higher education enrollment ratio of 26%.
- 14% have tertiary education as compared to 45% in OECD nations.
- ASER: Only 47% schools have drinking water provision.
- Education spending at 2.5% of GDP in 2019.
- 10% of India households have computer and 23% have internet facilities.
- EdTech startups, Byjus and Unacademy, are the largest in the world.
- MHRD came out with Alternative Academic Calendars for Covid.
SDG 5 - Gender equality
- Gender Inequality Index - 122/184. Gender Gap Index - 122/153.
- Eco survey: FLFPR in India at 25%. 52% difference between male and female LFPR.
- McKinsey: India's GDP could go up 16-60% if Indian women participated in the economy at par with men.
- NCRB data: Crimes against women went up by 7% in 2019. 87 rapes per day where 95% victims knew the perpetrator. Only 5% rapes are reported.
- NCRB: 70% of women are victims of domestic violence in India.
- 44% of women married before 18 in India.
- 14% of MPs are women with 48% population share. Women got voting rights in 1921.
- Oxfam report: women spent more than 5 hours a day in unpaid care work. Men spent 30 mins.
- Report found positive linkage between acceptability of domestic violence and unpaid care work. More acceptability leads to more work.
- Algorithmic hiring: the code that goes into the machine is the new law.
- Period poverty: Scotland made sanitary pads free through legislation.
SDG 6 - Clean water and sanitation
- Water Min: Water requirement is 55 lt per capita per day.
- 54% of India face high to extremely high water stress, affecting 500 million people.
- India has access to 4% of global water resources with 16% population. Virtual water export.
- Only 18% rural household have access to piped water.
- 75% India households don't have access to water on premises. Jal Jeevan Mission & FHTC.
- NITI aayog: 21 Indian cities (including Chennai Bengaluru Delhi) face Day Zero - groundwater running out. GW declining by 8cm/year in Northern plains.
- WEF: 51% people are exposed to unsafe drinking water.
- WEF: 200,000 people die in India due to lack of access to safe drinking water.
- Agriculture responsible for 80% of water usage.
Methods to tackle this
- reduced use and behvaioural change
- recycling and sell nutrient rich byproducts from wastewater treatment (China/US)
- GW augmentation
- Investing in grey and green water resources
- Drought Early Warning System deployed in 2019
- Net water metering in Delhi
- Bulk metering in Bengaluru
- Bhungroo in GJ - recharge well that draws excess storm water and recharges groundwater.
- TRISHNA Indo-French Satellite to monitor water table.
- CWMI by NITI Aayog.
SDG 7 - Affordable and clean energy
- 175 GW from renewable sources by 2022, aim to up this to 40% of total by 2030.
- Currently 23% installed capacity renewable. Additionally, 12% hydro and 2% nuclear.
- First year costs of solar projects as low as Rs. 2.9 per kWh in some areas.
- 3rd largest market worldwide. 17% CAGR of solar power installation capacity.
- 10% share of renewable energy in NIP till 2024. Fame Phase II.
- ICRA downgraded outlook of renewable energy sector to negative for 2020 in India.
- PM KUSUM to green agricultural energy. Promote farmer independence and reduce subsidy.
- IEA predicts peak oil demand to come by 2028.
SDG 8 - Decent work and economic growth
- IMF report: India will grow at 9% in 2021, 7.5% in 2022. Contracted 10% in 2020.
- Unemployment rate touched 5.4% in Dec 2020. LFPR is 50.4%. 500 million workers. Rural unemployment at 8% pre-covid.
- 2.5% of workforce has undergone skill training. (96% SK, 72% UK, 52% US, 25% China).
- India Skills Report: 57% engineering graduates employable right out of college. 47% graduates employable right out of college overall.
- Labour Min: 12 million people added to the workforce in 2019.
- EPFO: formal employment grew by 28% in 2019.
- NGO: 16 million women were victims of trafficking in India in 2016. NCRB: 6700 cases registered and 22% successfully prosecuted. GoI setting AHTUs and WHDs.
- 10 million child labourers in India. NCRB: 125% increase in from 2016 to 2017.
- Labour Min: 3 lakh people in debt bondage in India.
- WEF: India has 14 million migrant labour force. BiMaRU states contribute most.
SDG 9 - Industry, innovation and infrastructure
- NIP to spend 102 lakh crore over the next 5 years on Infra development.
24% energy - 10% renewable
17% urban development
- Sectors by GDP: 15, 23, 62.
- Sectors by employment: 42, 29, 29.
- Logistics cost in India is 14% of GDP. National Logistics Policy (Draft) aims to reduce this to 10%.
- Per capita bank credit was Rs. 73,500 in 2019.
- India has an economic complexity of 0.57 while SK has 2.17 and Japan 1.85. Denotes diversity of products. India is increasing, China is 0.89 and decreasing.
- India spends 0.7% of GDP on R&D. China spends 2% and SK spends 6%.
- India's national debt is 72% of GDP and Fiscal deficit stands at 3.5%.
SDG 10 - Reduced inequality
- Oxfam report: Top 1% took a share of 70% of income in 2018.
- Oxfam report: Bottom 50% took a share of 1% of income in 2018.
- 0.45 Gini coefficient in India, similar to US. High income inequality.
- Gender pay gap estimated at 24%.
- OECD: 7% impact on global GDP due to Covid. Will cut budgets for inclusive growth.
- Reduce transaction costs for remittances to <3%. Currently at 6%.
- Promotes special and differential treatment for developing countries.
- Bhagwati-Sen debate. Trickle down economics. Top down vs bottom up growth.
SDG 11 - Sustainable cities and communities
SENDAI Framework related to 11.5
- UN Habitat: 58% of S. Asian urban population lives in slums.
- Land consumption/population growth ratio should be close to 1 for sustainable growth.
- Delhi NCR had as much as 42% residents in slums. Carbon emission of 70 million tons/year.
- MoEF: 63% sewage treated.
- MoHUA: 53% of MSW treated. 62% source segregation.
- 3rd largest e-waste generator in the world. 30% CAGR. 2.4 kg per capita. World at 7.2 kgpc.
- MoEF: India produces 9.6 million tons of plastic waste. 40% remains uncollected.
- In 2019, 21 of the 30 most polluted cities in the world are Indian.
- India lost more than 2000 people in natural disasters in 2019. Economic loss of $13 Bn.
- Studies: Flooding events related to increased farmer suicides.
SDG 12 - Responsible consumption and production
- EU looking to tackle planned obsolescence to reduce waste. Right to repair should be a fundamental right.
- NITI A: strategy on resource efficiency. India consumed 7% of globally extracted raw materials in 2010. Power min: 22.3% ATC losses in India.
- Promoting use of secondary raw materials. Plastic waste rules. Circular economy.
- In 2015, India has a 32% lower energy intensity as compared to 2000. Decreased energy used per unit output.
- Water intensity of 0.461 as compared to 0.118 for APAC region. 4x water used/unit output.
- UN: 40% of food produced in India is wasted. 92k crore worth of food wasted every year.
- India coming up with National Resource Efficiency Policy.
SDG 13 - Climate action
- IIT KGP: Climate change displaced 2.7 million Indians in 2019. Globally 200 million people will be impacted by 2050.
- Global Climate Risk Index - India 5/181. Economic losses rank 2/181.
- Since 2004, India has experienced 11 of the 15 warmest years in 120 years.
- Reports: India will overshoot its 40% renewable energy target to achieve 45%. At 38% in 2019.
- Harmonise Indian sustainable traditions with growth and consumption.
- Global GHG emission at 52 giga tons of CO2 equivalent. 7% drop due to Covid19.
- US, EU have adopted Net-Zero emission targets by 2050.
- Emission Gap Report: World headed for a 3.2 degree temperature rise as per current trends.
- Cultured meat as an alternative. Climate change implications of animal husbandry industry.
- 1 ton CO2 emitted in a 4 hour flight. E-diplomacy reducing GHG emissions.
SDG 14 - Life below water
- Ocean pH at 8.1. Dropped 0.1 in last 100 years which is 10 times faster than natural processes.
- Sustainable fishing: illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing as high as 30% in some areas.
- NFDB: Fisheries contributes 1% of India's GDP. Andhra contri 25% but mainly from inland.
- India has 25% non-motorised, 37% motorised and 37% mechanised fishing fleet.
- 50% of all mechanised boats in India are trawlers negatively impacting ecosystem production.
- Western coast accounts for 60% of all catch but showing a declining trend in recent years.
SDG 15 - Life on land
CBD & Aichi+ Targets
- India with 2.4% of land is home to 7-8% of all recorded species.
- Red List Index of species survival down to 0.73 in 2020 from 0.82 in 1990.
- Forest cover in India is 21.67% in 2019. Global forest area fell by 0.6% net loss of 100 million ha of forests.
- 56k crore available in CAMPA funds, unspent.
- 30% of land area in India is degraded by:
soil erosion and
depletion of wetlands.
- India has pledged to restore 1.5% of it's degraded land by 2030.
- Delhi Declaration on land degradation noted the link between restoration and job creation.
- Laser Land Levelers - reduces water usage by 35% with consequent saving of soil quality. Increases yield by up to 17%.
SDG 16 - Peace and Justice, Strong institutions
- Corruption perception index - India 80/180.
- Tax havens are secrecy jurisdictions. Low or no corporate tax and lmited public disclosure of information.
- WB: Good governance indicators - 111/193
- Conviction rate - 50% in 2019. Chargesheeting rate 67%.
- 43% MPs in 17th LS have criminal cases pending against them.
- 130 MPs in 16th LS came from some political lineage. Elite rule.
- Question hour functioned only 40% of the time in the 16th LS.
- India has 20 judges per million people.
- Total vacancy against sanctioned strength was 23% in 2019, 42% in HCs.
- Pending cases:
- SC - 64k
- HCs - 51 lakhs
- Lower courts - 3.4 crores. UP courts alone 81 lakhs.
- Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy: till 2016, 70 out of last 100 retired SC judges had taken up jobs in quasi-judicial bodies.
- India has close to 90% aadhaar saturation in 2020. Only 22% in 0-5 age group.
SDG 17 - Partnership in achieving the goals
- Asks developed nations to invest in LDCs and developing countries.
- Capacity building. Sustainable technology transfer.
- Remove trade barriers. Enhance availability of reliable data.
- The 17 business avengers. MNCs driving SDGs.
- Working to align core business with SDGs and public good.
- Nations have no permanent friends or enemies, only permanent interests.
- India average land holding size is 1.08 ha. PB avg is 3.62 ha and BH avg holding is 0.6 ha.
- 40% of India's 500 million workforce is engaged in agri as per Agri census 2015.
- Ashok Gulati. Crop diversification can be used to reduce MSP dependence and boost farmer incomes.
- Agricultural science must be decentralised to leverage local environments effectively.
- MGNREGA uptake highest in last 5 years due to pandemic.
- Zero Budget Natural Farming
- PUSA and IARI came out with a bio-decomposer that helps manage paddy stubble.
Problems of Agriculture
Technological treadmill, increasing indebtedness, lack of marketing support and uneconomic holdings have made agriculture a losing proposition.
- Increasing number of labourers and declining cultivators.
- Avg landholding 1.08 ha and declining. 86% small and marginal unable to meet consumption expenses.
- NABARD Fin Inclusion Survey: Avg agri household income Rs. 9000, with only 35% coming from cultivation. 34% from other sources including wage labour.
- 52% agri households in India under debt. Avg debt of 47k. 120k in PB.
- Non-institutional sources account for 30% of all rural debt. Share of banks 54%.
- Rural unemployment at 8% pre-covid.
- NCRB: 14500 farmers commit suicide every year on average in the last 25 years. (22k married women)
- NAFIS: only 48% of rural households agricultural. De-agrarianisation of the rural areas.
- 65% agri work force are women. Women not recognised as farmers by govt as don't own land and excluded from benefits.
- Loss of species diversity in crops and livestock. Increased risk to pests.
- Negative impacts of chemical pesticides. Biomagnification. High rates of cancer in PB.
- Growing disease burden rising healthcare costs for households.
- Distorted cropping patterns due to MSP and subsidies.
- MNCs control 70% of inputs in seeds and chemicals.
- Local knowledge borrowed, added urban innovation and sold back to farmers.
- India has 20 agro climatic regions and yet research is highly centralised.
Food processing - locations, issues and future
- 37 food parks funded under Mega Food Parks scheme. 20 operational.
- 100% FDI allowed under automatic route. 100% FDI through govt route for trading.
- Agri exports account for 2% of GDP. Post harvest losses close to 90k crores.
Irrigation - types, cover, future
- India has the world's largest GW irrigation system. GW declining at 8cm/year in north.
- 47% of agri land reliably irrigated. 65% share of GW irrigation.
- PM Krishi Sichai Yojana: 55% financial assistance for small & marginal and 45% for others to install drip and sprinkler irrigation systems.
- Efficiency of flood irrigation ranges from 25-40%. Laser land leveler reduces water use by 30%.
- Positives of micro irrigation (Nat Mission on Micro Irrigation study):
- 30% saving in energy consumption.
- 28% saving in fertiliser consumption (fertigation)
- 32% saving in irrigation cost.
- 42% increase in fruit productivity.
- 50% increase in vegetable productivity
- 42% increase in farmer income.
PDS - stats, issues
- 42% of all households held BPL or AAY cards in 2012. 5.5 lakh fair price shops, 4 lakh have ePoS.
- 90% of ration cards are aadhaar seeded.
- Food subsidy under NFSA cost 1.5 lakh crores in 2019.
- NITI A: considers cash transfer as a way to improve nutritional security.
- Universal PDS a solution. No classification of beneficiaries as in TN.
- PDS Issues:
- Aadhaar seeding causing exclusion errors.
- High leakage. Plan Comm: 35% of all wheat supplies, 31% rice and 23% sugar.
- Diversion low in west and south. High in north and east.
- Poor don't have cash to buy 20kgs in a single go. No installments allowed.
- Low quality of food grains.
- Insufficient storage capacity. Stocks at 2.5x storage capacity.
- Fiscal deficity at 3.5%. Total government debt pegged at 6%.
- SBI Report: Debt to GDP ratio at 72% due to covid. FRBM combined debt target of 60% to be achievable only by 2030.
- IEA predicts a 2028 global peak of oil demand.
- India must focus on developing completely local supply chains for photovoltaics.
- Khaleeji Capitalism - gulf states funding ventures through SWF and oil conglomerates.
- Average vessel turnaround time is 60 hours. Shanghai, largest port, does it in 23.5 hours.
- Average turnaround time for container ship is 30 hours. Shanghai does it in 14.5 hours.
- 758 MMT cargo volume handled.
- India 4th largest auto market. 20 million vehicles sold annually. Behind China, USA and Japan.
- 15% of contracts awarded (in length) are under HAM model.
- 57% vehicles not insured, a mandatory provision under MVA.
- India is 3rd largest aviation market. China and US ahead.
- 378 million traffic in 2019. Target of 825 million in 2025. UDAN phase 4. Islands and NE to be promoted for VGF.
- AAI airports have 31% non-aero revenue sources.
- Domestic passenger traffic dropped 57% Q2 2020.
- Operating ratio for railways is 98.4. Rs 98.4 spent for 100 earned. Target 95% in 2019.
- Average speed of passenger rail is 51 kmph. China has 70 kmph.
- Railways achieved 100% punctuality in 2020. Witnessed 5 accidents in 2019 with 0 deaths.
- US, Russia, ESA, and ISRO have sent Mars orbiters.
- India tested ASAT systems in 2019. Microsat R destroyed.
- IN-SPACe to act as a regulator for Non Govt Private Entities. Skyroot Aerospace. Vikram I.
- India is 2nd most vulnerable country for cyber attacks after US.
- NFHS 5: 42% of women use the internet as compared to 62% men.
- TRAI: 750 million internet users in India in 2020. Rural India grows 45% due to pandemic.
- Only China with 805 million users ahead of India.
- RBI provides sandbox regulatory model to test fintech products.
- Average data consumption per capita per month in India is 9.8 GB with cost of Rs. 7.7/GB.
- Naxalism: MHA says 3750 people died in 2019. 27% decline.
- Insurgency in NE: 80% decline in deaths as compare to 2013. MHA. 1824 surrenders.
- Naga Conflict: Estimated 3000 people killed in the last 70 years.
- 25 crore Indians consume tobacco products.
- WHO says NCDs are 7 out of top 10 killers in 2019. Heart diseases cause 16% of all deaths.
- Indian diaspora population is ~17 million according to MEA.
- NRIs at ~13 million according to MEA.
- Personnel - 2 million personnel in state police forces. 30% vacancies.
- SMART Police – police which should be
- Strict and Sensitive,
- Modern and Mobile,
- Alert and Accountable,
- Reliable and Responsible,
- Tech-savvy and Trained.
- Equipment - CAG Report found that police equipment was outdated in multiple states.
- Police personnel under tremendous stress, understaffed and critical nature of job. Makes them apathetic.