Prelims Daily MCQs (15/01/2023)


Detailed Explanation

Q1. Consider the following statements about humidity

  1. Absolute humidity represents the actual amount of moisture present in the air. Absolute humidity remains constant with change in temperature.
  2. Relative humidity is the ratio between the amount of moisture which the air can hold at a given temperature and the amount it actually holds.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are true?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct answer: (c)

Explanation:

Absolute humidity is the ratio between the weight of vapour per unit volume of air expressed as grams per cubic metre of air.

Relative humidity is the ratio between the amount of moisture which the air can hold at a given temperature and the amount it actually holds


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Q2. Consider the following reasons which are responsible to keep India at the bottom of Human Development:

  1. Rapid increase in population
  2. Large number of adult illiterates and low gross enrolment ratio
  3. Inadequate government expenditure on education and health

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) None of the above



Correct answer: (c)

Explanation:

The following are the reasons to keep India at the bottom of human development

(a) Rapid increase in population

(b) Large number of adult illiterates and low gross enrolment ratio

(c) High drop-out rates

(d) Inadequate government expenditure on education and health,

(e) Large proportion of underweight children, as well as undernourished people

(f) Very poor sanitation facilities and low access to essential life-saving medicines.


Q3. With reference to ‘Aggregate Demand’, consider the following statements:

  1. It takes into account the imports and exports of the country.
  2. Aggregate demand does not necessarily represent the quality of life or standard of living in a society.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct answer: (c)

Explanation:

Both statements are correct:

Aggregate demand is measured by market values. It only represents total output at a given price level and does not necessarily represent the quality of life or standard of living in a society. Aggregate demand consists of all consumer goods, capital goods (factories and equipment), exports, imports, and government spending.




Q4. With reference to FAO Food Price Index, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a measure of the monthly change in international prices of a basket of food commodities.
  2. It consists of the average of five commodity group price indices weighted by the average export shares of each of the groups over 2014-2016.
  3. It was introduced in 1996 as a public good to help in monitoring developments in the global agricultural commodity markets.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 3 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer: (d)

Explanation:

All the statements are correct here:

The FAO Food Price Index (FFPI) is a measure of the monthly change in international prices of a basket of food commodities. It consists of the average of five commodity group price indices weighted by the average export shares of each of the groups over 2014-2016.


Q5. Which among the following statements is/are correct regarding tuberculosis(TB)?

  1. It is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  2. In humans, TB usually attacks the lungs, but it can’t affect other organs.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2


Correct Answer: (a)

Explanation:

Statement 2 is incorrect: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). The bacteria, or germs, usually attack the lungs. TB germs can attack any part of the body, such as the kidney, spine, or brain.


Q6. Recently, there was a growing awareness about the over-exploitation of a common Himalayan herb called “The Himalayan trillium”. It has become an easy target of poachers because it has the property of -

(a) Anti-ageing agent

(b) Textile fibres

(c) Anti-malarial

(d) Biodiesel

Correct Answer: (a)

Explanation:

Recent experiments have shown that the rhizome of the herb is a source of steroidal saponins and can be used as an anti-cancer and anti-ageing agent.

(https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/overexploitation-long-life-cycle-have-endangered-a-common-himalayan-herb/article33373173.ece)


Q7. Within biological communities, some species are important in determining the ability of a large number of other species to persist in the community. Such species are called:

(a) Keystone species

(b) Allopatric species

(c) Sympatric species

(d) Threatened Species

Correct Answer: (a)

Explanation: (https://www.britannica.com/science/keystone-species)


Q8. Consider the following statements:

  1. Gram Sabha consists of all the persons of the village.
  2. After the dissolution of a Panchayat, the newly elected Panchayat will enjoy a full five-year term.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct answer: (d)

Explanation:

Gram Sabha: The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act provides for a Gram Sabha as the foundation of the Panchayati Raj System. It is a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls of a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village level. Thus, it is a village assembly consisting of all the registered voters in the area of a Panchayat. It may exercise such powers and perform such functions at the village level as the legislature of a state determines. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.

Duration of Panchayats: The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act provides for a five-year term of office to the Panchayat at every level. However, it can be dissolved before the completion of its term. Further, fresh elections to constitute a Panchayat shall be completed (a) before the expiry of its duration of five years; or (b) in case of dissolution, before the expiry of a period of six months from the date of its dissolution.

Where the remainder of the period (for which the dissolved Panchayat would have continued) is less than six months, it shall not be necessary to hold any election for constituting the new Panchayat for such period.

Moreover, a Panchayat constituted upon the dissolution of a Panchayat before the expiration of its duration shall continue only for the remainder of the period for which the dissolved Panchayat would have continued had it not been so dissolved. In other words, a Panchayat reconstituted after premature dissolution does not enjoy the full period of five years, but remains in office only for the remainder of the period. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.



Q9. Consider the following statements:

  1. The Godavari River rises from Trimbakeshwar near Nasik in Maharashtra.
  2. Kumbh Mela also takes place on the banks of the Godavari River in Nashik.
  3. The Pravara, Manjira and Maner are left-bank tributaries of the Godavari river.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct answer: (c)

Explanation:

Statement 3 is incorrect: The Pravara, Manjira and Maner are right-bank tributaries of the Godavari river.

The Purna, Pranhita, Indravathi and Sabari are important left-bank tributaries, covering nearly 59.7% of the total catchment area of the basin.


Q10. The technology called ‘Electromagnetic Air Lift System’ is sometimes talked about in reference to

(a) Launching aircraft from warships

(b) Development of Supersonic cruise missile

(c) Navigation of Anti-Radiation Missile (ARM)

(d) Development of Anti Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM)

Correct answer: (a)

Explanation:

The Fujian has been fitted with the latest launch technology — the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS), first developed by the U.S. Navy.

It is a catapult system which helps to provide an extra push to aircraft. Once the catapult is released, the aircraft attached to the catapult moves forward with great speed in a short time, which helps it to gain the speed required to take off before it reaches the end of the runway.



CSAT Questions and Solutions

Q11. The ‘Tribal Question’, or the social, political, economic and cultural alienation of those called ‘tribal’, is one of modern South Asia’s most long-standing and vexing problems. An important and in fact the first cause of this problem has been the mythification of these communities as ‘tribal’, and therefore as backward and primitive. Because tribal peoples are considered primitive, vestiges of the past incapable of contributing anything significant to the present and the future, they have not been listened to seriously in matters concerning the affairs and state of our world.

With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:

  1. The definition of tribal as is commonly accepted in the general public is archaic in nature.
  2. Tribal people live in harmony with nature and we need to learn this from them.
  3. The knowledge and perspective of tribal people can be a significant contribution for all of us.

Which of the above assumptions is/are not valid?

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct answer: (c)

Explanation:

As it is evident from the passage through the lines,

(a) ―An important and in fact the first cause of this problem has been the mythification of these communities as tribal‘, and therefore as backward and primitive

(b) ―They have not been listened to seriously in matters concerning the affairs and state of our world

These two statements define the assumptions as mentioned in statements 1 and 2. Since the question is ―not valid, hence, the correct answer is option (C).


Q12. Despite the best efforts of those responsible for preventing fraud, one inevitable reality remains: “fraud happens.” Because fraud and misconduct can occur at various levels in any organization, it is essential that appropriate preventive and detective techniques are in place. Although fraud prevention and detection are related concepts, they are not the same. While prevention encompasses policies, procedures, training, and communication, detection involves activities and programs designed to identify fraud or misconduct that is occurring or has occurred. Although preventive measures cannot ensure that fraud will not be committed, they are first line of defence in minimizing fraud risk.

According to the passage, what is the fundamental difference between fraud prevention and fraud detection?

(a) Background checks should also be performed on new and existing suppliers, customers, and business partners to identify any issues of financial health, ownership, reputation, and integrity that may represent an unacceptable risk to the business.

(b) Prevention means to stop something from happening, while detection means to figure out the cause.

(c) Prevention is not allowing data exchange & detection is to identify problem

(d) Prevention encompasses policies, procedures, training, and communication, detection involves activities and programs designed to identify fraud.

Correct answer: (d)

Explanation:

It is mentioned in the passage that prevention encompasses policies, procedures, training, and communication, while detection involves activities and programs designed to identify fraud.





Q13. Scientists had observed superconductivity at room temperature, in a new composite material made of gold and silver. The claim created huge excitement. Superconductivity is a phenomenon that, so far, has been possible only at extremely low temperatures, in the range of 100°C below zero. The search for a material that exhibits superconductivity at room temperature, or at least manageable low temperatures, has been going on for decades, without success. If the

claimed discovery was confirmed, it could be one of the biggest breakthroughs in physics in this century so far.

What is the most logical and rational corollary of the above passage?

(a) Superconductivity at room temperature is an important discovery which will be beneficial for the space industry.

(b) This breakthrough discovery in physics will be difficult to commercialise in the near future.

(c) Scientists across the world were involved in this research for the last decade.

(d) This discovery would expand the scope and applications of superconductivity in daily life.

Correct answer: (d)

Explanation:

The passage indicates that search for the material that is superconductive at room temperature is going on for decades. The discovery of such material will definitely increase its applications.


Q14. In the field of psychology, the Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias wherein people of low ability suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their cognitive ability as greater than it is. The cognitive bias of illusory superiority derives from the metacognitive inability of low-ability persons to recognize their own ineptitude; without the self-awareness of metacognition, low-ability people cannot objectively evaluate their actual competence or incompetence.

Based on your understanding of the passage, which of the following statements describes fully or partly the Dunning Kruger Effect?

  1. Superiority complex in people with lower ability
  2. Happens because of the ability of low-ability persons to understand their own ineptitude
  3. People are unable to understand their actual competence or incompetence

Select the correct answer from the following options

(a) 1 and 3

(b) 1 and 2

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct answer: (a)

Explanation:

Only statement 2 is wrong because Dunning-Kruger effect happens because of the “inability” of lower-ability people to understand their own incompetence.


Q15. The rich, as F Scott Fitzgerald noted, “are different from you and me”. Their wealth, he wrote, makes them “cynical where we are trustful” and their affluence makes them think they are “better than we are”. These words ring truest among the billionaires and corporate executives flocking to the Swiss ski resort of Davos this week. The highs recorded by stock markets, the tremendous monopoly power of tech titans and spikes in commodity prices reassure the rich cosmocratic class that they have weathered the storm of the financial crisis. The moguls can talk safely about inequality and poverty. But they will do little about it because they do not think their best interests are aligned with citizens. This is a mistake of historic proportions.

What are the assumptions made about the cosmocratic class in the passage?

  1. They suffer from superiority complex
  2. They care little about inequality and social justice

Which of the above given is/are the correct option(s)?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct answer: (c)

Explanation: Both statements are directly mentioned in the passage


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