1. Consider the following statements with respect to Kaziranga National Park:
- In March 2020, it was selected as one among the 17 Iconic Tourist Sites of the country by the Indian Government.
- Presence of alluvial savanna woodlands and tropical semi-evergreen forest vegetation in the National Park.
- It is designated as an ‘Important Bird Area’ by Birdlife International.
- It is located in Chirang and Baksa District of Assam in northeast India and is contiguous with the National Park of Bhutan.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
a) 1, 2 and 3 only
b) 2 only
c) 1 and 4 only
d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Exp: Statement 1 is correct: The Government has identified some world class iconic tourist stations in India to attract foreign and domestic tourists. Ministry of Tourism has identified 17 sites in 12 clusters in the country for development as Iconic Tourist Sites namely Taj Mahal & Fatehpur Sikri (Uttar Pradesh), Ajanta & Ellora (Maharashtra), Humayun’s Tomb, Red Fort & Qutub Minar (Delhi), Colva (Goa), Amer Fort (Rajasthan), Somnath & Dholavira (Gujarat), Khajuraho (Madhya Pradesh), Hampi (Karnataka), Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu), Kaziranga (Assam), Kumarakom (Kerala) and Mahabodhi Temple (Bihar).
Statement 2 is correct: Four main types of vegetation exist in this park. These are alluvial inundated grasslands, alluvial savanna woodlands, tropical moist mixed deciduous forests, and tropical semi-evergreen forests. Based on Landsat data for 1986, percent coverage by vegetation is: tall grasses 41%, short grasses 11%, open jungle 29%, swamps 4%, rivers and water bodies 8%, and sand 6 %.
Statement 3 is correct: TheImportant Bird Area (IBA) programme of Birdlife International aims to identify, monitor and protect a global network of IBAs for conservation of the world's birds and associated biodiversity. The IBAs serve as conservation areas for protection of birds at the global, regional or sub-regional level. Kaziranga National Park has been designated the status of IBA due to its diversity of bird species. Statement 4 is incorrect: Kaziranga National Park is located in Golaghat and Nagaon, in the Karbi Anglong district of Assam in northeast India. Manas National Park is located in Chirang and Baksa District of Assam in northeast India and is contiguous with Royal Manas National Park of Bhutan.
2. Consider the following laws under which the jurisdiction of the National Green Tribunal lies:
- The Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1981.
- The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991.
- The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
- The Forest (conservation) Act, 1980.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 2 and 3 only
b) 3 and 4 only
c) 1, 2 and 4 only
d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Exp: The National Green Tribunal was established in 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environment protection and conservation of forest and other natural resources.
The Tribunal is competent to hear matters relating to laws listed in schedule I of NGT Act. These are: The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974; The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977; The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980; The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981; The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986; The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991; The Biological Diversity Act, 2002.
Some significant laws are not included: Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972 which prevents any sort of destruction inside sanctuaries without permission; Forest Rights Act, 2006; Scheduled Tribes (Recognition of forest Right) Act 2005 which give rights to forest -dwelling scheduled Tribes to protect and conserve forest resources.
3. Consider the following pairs with reference to species and their IUCN status:
- Indian Flapshell Turtles Critically endangered
- Milu Deer Extinct
- Gangetic River Dolphin Endangered
- Houbara Bustard Least concern.
Select the correct answer using codes given below:
a) 2 and 3 only
b) 1, 2 and 4 only
c) 2, 3 and 4 only
d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Exp: Pair 1 is incorrect: Indian Flapshell Turtles scientific name is Lissemys punctata. The “flapshelled” name stems from the presence of femoral flaps located on the plastron. They live in the shallow, quiet, often stagnant waters of rivers, streams, marshes, ponds, lakes and irrigation canals, and tanks. Its conservation status in IUCN Red List is Vulnerable, CITES Appendix II and schedule I of Wildlife (protection) act, 1972. It has threatened that turtles are smuggled and killed for their supposed aphrodisiac properties, livestock feed, to make leather from their skins, to make potions from their blood.
Pair 2 is correct: Milu deer (Elaphurus davidianus) is a rare and endangered species and also known as Pere David's deer; these animals were on the verge of disappearing towards the end of the 19th century. It is native and endemic to the river valleys of China. Its conservation status in IUCN Red list is Extinct in the Wild and has a threat of hunting for their meat. Loss of wetland habitat and Illicit mining and logging have fragmented reserves and left endangered animals marooned in "forest islands".
Pair 3 is correct: The Ganges River dolphin is the national aquatic animal of India. Conservation Status in IUCN Red List is endangered and Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972): Schedule I, CITES: Appendix I, the species, whose global population is estimated at 4,000, is mostly found in the Indian subcontinent. It is found throughout the GangesBrahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India and Bangladesh.
Pair 4 is incorrect: The Asian Houbara bustard is also known as MacQueen’s bustard. It is a large terrestrial bird found in parts of Asia, the Middle East and Africa. The species lives in Arid Climate. The population of the Asian Houbara bustards extends from northeast Asia, across central Asia, the Middle East, and the Arabian Peninsula to reach the Sinai desert (Egypt). Its Conservation Status in IUCN Red list is Vulnerable, CITES: Appendix I and Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)- Appendix II. Major threats are Poaching for meat as it is believed to be an aphrodisiac and degrading of habitat.
4. Consider the following statements
- Ecosystem is the study of the relationships among living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment.
- Niche is the environment over which a species is known to occur and the type of community that is formed as a result and is independent of the specific role played by that species.
- No two species in a habitat can have the same niche.
Which of the above-mentioned statements is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Exp: Ecology is the study of the relationships among living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms at the individual, population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere level. Ecology overlaps with the closely related sciences of biogeography, evolutionary biology, genetics, ethology, and natural history. Ecology is a branch of biology, and it is not synonymous with environmentalism. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
Difference between Habitat and Niche
No two species in a habitat can have the same niche. This is because of the competition with one another until one is displaced. Hence statement 3 is correct.
For example, a large number of different species of insects may be pests of the same plant, but they can co-exist as they feed on different parts of the same plant.
5. Consider the following
- Thermoregulation in organisms is generally an energetically inexpensive process.
- Smaller animals tend to lose very less heat owing to their smaller surface area relative to their volume.
- Polar regions usually have large animals due to their efficient conservation of heat.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 and 3 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 2 only
d) 3 only
Exp: Thermoregulation is energetically expensive for many organisms. This is particularly true for small animals like shrews and hummingbirds. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
Heat loss or heat gain is a function of surface area. Since small animals have a larger surface area relative to their volume, they tend to lose body heat very fast when it is cold outside; then they have to expend much energy to generate body heat [a lot of food goes into heat generation] through metabolism. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
This is the main reason why very small animals are rarely found in polar regions. This implies that polar regions usually have large animals due to their efficient conservation of heat. E.g Polar bear, Walrus etc. Hence statement 3 is correct.
This is the nature of world-altering success. It’s easy to be good when the stakes (and the valuations) are low. We can count on it as an immutable law of history: in any space where fame and fortune and power are up for grabs, Machiavelli eventually makes his appearance. Even if you started as the little guy or you were certified as a B Corp or put ‘Don’t Be Evil’ in your public filing documents.
6. With reference to the above passage, which of the following assumptions can be made?
- As one becomes successful, the value of principles and ethics decline
- All people after becoming successful change their belief system.
Select correct option from below :
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Exp: Statement1 is what the author is assuming when he says that Machiavelli makes an appearance. Statement 2 is implied as the author says its an immutable law of history.
Passage – 2
Capitalism faced a crisis of profitability in the 1970s. Opinions differ regarding its causes, but the global elite had no doubts about the solution: financialisation and globalisation. Also known as the “neo-liberal turn”, it helped solve the problem of falling rates of profit by empowering capital to flow across national borders to wherever the returns were the highest, buy up state-owned assets and enterprises cheaply, and use labour arbitrage to appropriate a greater share of produced value.
7. What is the most logical corollary of the above passage?
a) Capitalism digs its own grave
b) Technology is the sector benefitted most by capitalism
c) Capitalism survived because it adapted to the changing times and continues to adapt
d) Capitalism is an ideology for the rich
Exp: Capitalism survived because it adapted to the changing times and continues to adapt.
Cover the entire CSAT syllabus in 70 hours.