Previse 2024: Science & Technology Terms

Previse 2024: Science & Technology Terms

GS3 | S&T

Table of contents


  • Biohacking is a term for various tricks which enhances the body’s ability to function at peak performance and extend one’s lifespan.
  • It involves methods from biology, genetics, neuroscience and nutrition to enhance physical or mental performance.
  • It involves facets like- 
    • Molecular i.e use of natural and synthetic molecules for eg supplements.
    • Biologics i.e use of biological products to enhance biology by ingestion, injection (stem cells) or intravenous transfusion.
    • Lifestyle i.e positive health and behavior choices like dietary shifts, meditation and exercise.
    • Technology i.e use of wearables like smartwatches and use of diagnostics like blood sugar monitors.


  • Amaze-28 is Kerala’s maiden 3D-printed building, and its construction was completed in 28 days.
  • 3D printing is a layer-by-layer three phased printing process, viz- data processing, material processing, and robotic printing.
  • It is advantageous because a huge building can be completed in just 28 days, a fraction of the time required using conventional methods.
  • There is flexibility in design and complex architecture can be built with precision and uniformity.
  • Also, there is minimal wastage thus saving on inputs.
  • Steps taken by the government to promote it include National Strategy for Additive Manufacturing, Samarth Udyog and Make in India 2.0.

Harit Nauka Initiative

  • India’s maiden indigenous hydrogen fuel cell ferry was unveiled recently.
  • As per the Shipping Ministry guidelines for inland vessels, all states have to use green fuels for 50 per cent of inland waterways-based passenger fleets in the next one decade.
  • Recently launched vessel is a 24-meter-long catamaran ferry powered by a 50-kW Proton-Exchange Membrane fuel cell and Lithium-Ion phosphate batteries.
  • The vessel operated with zero emissions and minimal noise ensuring enhanced energy efficiency.


  • Recently a rare metal, tantalum, was unearthed from the sand of the Sutlej River in Punjab.
  • It is very hard with exceptional corrosion resistance because it is immune to chemical attacks at temperatures below 150°C.
  • Tantalum is used extensively  in electronics, particularly in capacitors, smartphones, laptops, and cameras.
  • It can also be used as a substitute of platinum in chemical plants, nuclear power plants, aircraft, and missiles.
  • It is also insoluble in acids and due to its non-reactivity with bodily fluids, tantalum is utilized in surgical equipment and implants, such as artificial joints.

Rice Vampireweed 

  • Rhamphicarpa fistulosa, or Rice vampireweed, affected more than 1.5 lakh farmers in Africa.
  • It is a facultative, parasitic weed growing on rice causing a lot of destruction to the food basket. This is because it affects other  crops like sorghum, maize and other cereal crops. 
  • To date, there is no fertilizer that can control Rhamphicarpa fistulosais.

BFI-Biome Virtual Network Programme

  • Centre for Cellular and Molecular Platforms signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Blockchain for Impact to join its BFI-Biome Virtual Network Programme.
  • This programme will unite incubators with research institutes for better outcomes.
  • It will revolutionize healthcare delivery and ensure transformative scientific advances.
  • C-CAMP is an initiative of the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science, Technology and Earth Sciences.

Bitcoin Halving

  • Bitcoin Halving means 50% reduction in the premium paid to Bitcoin miners in return for processing other people’s cryptocurrency transactions.
  • Bitcoin miners use advanced computer equipment to solve mathematical puzzles through the ‘Proof of work’ process to grow Bitcoin’s blockchain.
  • These transactions result in huge carbon footprints and require huge electricity.
  • Mining increases the supply of bitcoin while Bitcoin Halving reduces the rate at which these coins are released, making the asset more scarce.

Carbon Nanoflorets

  • Carbon nanoflorets are novel spherical nanostructures that exhibit unprecedented efficiency in converting sunlight into heat.
  • They are made of carbon cones with excellent light-absorbing capabilities.
  • Its manufacture begins with heating of dendritic fibrous nanosilica along with acetylene gas.
  • Upon further treatment, silicon particles are removed leaving behind spherical nanostructures.
  • As per an estimate, carbon nanoflorets are 87% efficient in converting sunlight into heat as they can absorb visible, infrared and ultraviolet light
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