Sociology Daily Answer Writing (02-09-2022)

Topics - Sociology and Common Sense | Emergence of Sociology


  1. Clarify the correlation between Common Sense and Sociology.   10
  2. Explain how sociology emerged as a distinct discipline based on rationality and scientific temper.                       20

Model Solutions

1. Clarify the correlation between Common Sense and Sociology. 10

Model Structure

  • Define Common sense and Sociology

Main Body
Compare and contrast the both

  • Sociology- Not Common Sense (common sense vs sociology)
    • Nature of findings: Cues from surface Vs Looking out for interconnectedness
    • Nature of Observations: Assumptions, individualistic, culturally determined Vs Organized skepticism, tested thoughts.
    • Orientation: Status-quoist, unreflective Vs Change oriented and reflective
    • Positivist argues that common sense and sociology is different
  • Sociology- Common Sense (Similarities between them -Moore & Reid)
    • Concepts in sociology been framed by taking common sense knowledge into consideration
    • Common sense helps in building sociological hypotheses.
    • It also provides raw material for sociological investigation
    • Non-positivists (phenomenology, ethnomethodology) consider common sense as a part of sociology.


  • At first, it was rejected by positivists like Durkheim; Some see it as complementary;
  • Post-modernist see sociological knowledge as no superior to common sense.
  • Thus, the relation between sociology and common sense is dynamic and even mutually reinforcing at times.

2. Explain how sociology emerged as a distinct discipline based on rationality and scientific temper. 20

Model Framework:

  • Define Sociology
  • Emergence of Sociology- rooted in the Enlightenment and Scientific revolution

Main Body

  • Intellectual Development in Europe -
    • Greek philosophers Plato
    • Renaissance - Changes in religion
    • Enlightenment - Rousseau General will of people
  • French and industrial Revolution -
    • Old Traditions challenged by Modernity (Eg - Political structure, Feudalism, Old forces of production)
    • Changes due to modernity
  • Challenges in the society due to modernity -
    • Urbanisation, Poverty, Deviance
  • Contradictory ideas caused Antithesis -
    • Pro-modernist (Comte, Durkheim) versus anti-modernist (Marx) debate causing intellectual unrest
    • Already established social disciplines were not able to address the social problems
    • New discipline was established to study societal phenomena scientifically.


  • Concluding on lines of Question
  • Can conclude giving a futuristic dimension - how Sociology progressed after emergence.

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