Sociology Daily Answer Writing (13-09-2022)

Practice Sociology Answer Writing for UPSC Mains (Sociology Optional)


  1. With the growing concern for the environment the social movements are assuming a new character. Comment.          10
  2. Has Indian agriculture transcended towards capitalist mode of production?  10

Integrated Prelims + Mains Test Series
For UPSC Prelims and Mains 2023
Test series with one-to-one Mentorship!

Model Solutions

1. With the growing concern for the environment the social movements are assuming a new character. Comment. 10

Model Structure
(The question is about environment movements within the context of new social movements)


  • New social movements theory says postmodern movements do not follow the two traditional social movements challenging the social order: class-based or gender-based movements, thus are difficult to explain with traditional social movement theories.
  • Environment movement is one such new social movement which is unconventional in a way that it doesn’t strive for the benefit of particular group of people but for the benefit of all

Main Body
Guha & Gadgil provide the following four-fold classification of women’s movements:

  • Eco-feminism:
    • Eco-feminism emerges from the nexus between women and nature
    • Eco-feminism can be summarized as an environment movement of women against the state
    • Prominent movements are Chipko movement, Appiko movement
    • Vandana Shiva and Medha Patkar have written extensively on eco-feminism
  • Eco-Marxism:
    • Eco-Marxist movements are generally violent in nature
    • Eco-Marxist movements have oppressor vs. oppressed dynamic in which it is a people’s environment against the state
    • Kudankulam protests and Sterlite protests in Tamilnadu can be categorized under eco-Marxism
  • Gandhian Crusaders:
    • The environment movements which follow Gandhian methods of struggle such as Ahimsa and Satyagraha
    • E.g., Chipko movement wherein tribal women did civil disobedience
    • Ramachandra Guha extensively writes about Gandhian Crusaders
  • Alternate Technologists:
    • Environment movements wherein technology is the revolution
    • E.g., Moving from BS-IV to BS-VI

  1. Has Indian agriculture transcended towards capitalist mode of production? 10

Model Structure

  • Capitalist mode of production: Private ownership of means of production and profit maximization

Main Body

  • Heterogeneity in modes of production based on geography
  • Multiple modes of production by Gail Omvedt: Feudalistic mode of production, Semi-feudalistic mode of production (Eastern India, North-Eastern India), Low intensive capitalist mode of production (South India), Highly intensive capitalist mode of production (Punjab, Haryana)
  • Caste-class nexus predominantly realized in agriculture. Also results in dominant caste politics
  • Land reforms to bring equity in agricultural production. But, Benami transfers affect redistribution.
  • Rudolph and Rudolph Bullock Capitalists- Intensive agriculture in Punjab, Haryana has improved class position of land holding castes
  • Staple crops, horticulture crops → capitalist mode of production
  • According to Jan Breman, the relationship between landlords and agricultural workers has been shifted from Patronage to exploitation.
  • However, capitalisation of agriculture is not uniform
    • According to Utsa Patnaik, it largely depends upon factors like size of landholding, the intensity of use of hired labours, net production form land and profitability
    • Kathleen Gough in her study of Kumbapetti village (TN) found that, there is simultaneous existence of big bourgeoise rich farmers, petty bourgeoise farmers, semi proletariat and pure proletariat farmers. Thus the capitalist MoP in India has not fully developed

Previous Post

Next Post