Sociology Daily Answer Writing (12-09-2022)

Practice Sociology Answer Writing for UPSC Mains (Sociology Optional)


  1. Change is the only constant as argued by Heraclitus also applies to the modern day religion. Elaborate. (20)
  2. Who are gig workers? Discuss the functional and dysfunctional aspects of this new form of work organisation. (10)
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Model Solutions

Q1. Change is the only constant as argued by Heraclitus also applies to the modern day religion. Elaborate. 20

Model Structure

  • Dukheim defined religion as a “unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say things set apart and forbidden—beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them”.

Main Body
Dynamics of religion

  • Comte advocated the fact that religion like society would be evolutionary. With changing time religion would change its character.
  • According to Weber, as rationality increases secularism increases and the space of religion decreases.
  • Beside thes, many thinkers supported these arguments. Theorists like Durkheim, Marx, Spencer etc were of the view that traditional religion would become more and more marginalised in the modern world.
    Various changes in the nature of modern day religion.
  • Participation in institutional religion: Bryan Wilson in his studies conclude that decline in the participation in organised religion indicates the way churches are losing their influence over ideas and activities of men.
  • Disengagement of institutional religion from everyday life.
  • Bruce argues that in close knitted societies the same religious beliefs are shared by everyone and are questioned.
  • With increasing pluralism in society Wilson argues that religious values are no longer the values of the whole community.
  • With the changes in structures of society, individualisation has increased and religion has become more of a personnel affair.
  • Desacralisation, as argued by Wilson, has evolved. Where sacred has lost its relevance in modern society.


  • As a result of alterations in the institution, concepts like fundamentalism, communalism, secularism are on rise. Though forms of religion have evolved, its decreased relevance does not direct the end of religion as an institution.

Q2. Who are gig workers? Discuss the functional and dysfunctional aspects of this new form of work organisation. 10

Model Structure

  • With the advancement in technology and changing social structure of the world, demand for temporary workers with flexibility of working culture and specialised skill sets have increased. This led to the emergence of a new class of workers known as gig workers.

Main Body

  • This new form of work organisation is functional
    • Concepts like work from home, remote locations have made the work culture flexible.
    • Desired skill set is aligned with the eligible or proper opportunity. Thus, demand and supply of the worker and organisation is balanced.
    • Labour norms are not strict. Thus the individual is free to work for the a single institution or multiple, further giving her a choice of her own
    • As Marx has argued the formal work develops alienation, but with the rising gig economy individuals can align their interest to their work.
    • Increase in female workers in skilled jobs due to work from home modes of work
  • Issues related to gig economy
    • Lack of social security or security of employment.
    • No separate private life as work is brought to home itself.
    • No formal rules and regulation leading to exploitation.
    • Work overload and no fixed time of work causes mental stress to the workers.
    • It is highly skill intensive, forcing unskilled workers to do more menial works.


  • The time is changing and with the changing times demands too have changed. Gig economy is the need of the hour. If proper vigilance and quality infrastructure is provided, it would change the total nature of the work organisations.
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