- One of the gravest outcomes of climate change is rise in sea level. Discuss the implications of sea level rise and what measures should be taken to deal with it. (10 marks)
- Though there are robust laws and enforcement agencies to criminalise human trafficking, sexual exploitation and child labour continue like before. What can be the reasons and enumerate how to address it ? (15 marks)
1. One of the gravest outcomes of climate change is rise in sea level. Discuss the implications of sea level rise and what measures should be taken to deal with it. 10 marks
- Sea level rise is a result of climate change which owes its genesis to industrial revolution and the resultant carbon emitting technologies. Though it also occurs on a minor scale due to natural causes, anthropogenic causes are of concern as highlighted by IPCC.
- Long term implications of sea level rise include-
- Submergence of low lying countries especially in the Pacific and Indian Ocean.
- It can trigger widespread migration due to loss of land area and increasing competition for resources.
- Heavy rains, flooding and storm surges can impact food security and biodiversity loss.
- Sea level rise is a result of rising temperatures which means widespread disasters and loss of coral reefs. Depletion of corals damages worlds largest carbon sinks.
- Habitat destruction and destabilizing ecological balance.
- Tribes in many countries would be affected which will be a cultural loss as well.
- Melting of continental and alpine glaciers means flooding in interiors also.
- It is estimated that global sea level will rise by 2.3 km by 2100 which makes mitigation measures essential. Some of them are-
- Measures like more use of renewable energy like solar and wind accompanied by restricted use of fossil fuels.
- Framework for technology transfer to harness renewables so that developing countries can also be a part of this process.
- Coastal regulation zones, less encroachments and more conservation and plantation of mangroves for natural barriers.
- Better coordination among bodies like IMD, CWC and other space agencies for prediction and prevention.
- More robust NDRF and infrastructure to withstand disaster as per Sendai and Hyogo framework and UNISDR.
- Many countries including India have scaled up renewable energy usage and it needs to be further stepped up. International solar alliance, KUSUM scheme, solar parks etc are a step in the right direction.
2. Though there are robust laws and enforcement agencies to criminalise human trafficking, sexual exploitation and child labour continue like before. What can be the reasons and enumerate how to address it ? 15 marks
- Human trafficking means unlawful transport and coercion of people for their trade into acts like slavery, forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation. Though article 23 of Indian constitution and many laws prohibits human trafficking, it is still rampant.
The seriousness of the issue can be gauged from the fact that in 2021, around 21 children were trafficked per day according to a report by a child rights NGO. Reasons for such heinous crime include-
- Poor implementation of laws and at times law enforcement agencies are hand in glove with traffickers.
- Post pandemic lockdown caused widespread unemployment thus reducing the capability of families to provide care for children.
- Traffickers are not deterred against trafficking due to huge pendency of cases in courts and less conviction.
- Poor enforcement of child marriage prohibition act leads to child trafficking..
- Digital penetration has made luring by traffickers easier.
- Less police to population ratio affects enforcement of laws and investigation.
Measures to prevent trafficking include-
- More manpower in the police department with ground units for tip offs. Trafficking occurs mostly by trains and empowering RPF is pivotal.
- Better funding and training of manpower.
- Better database formation and pattern of crime for crime prevention.
- Fast track courts and increase judges to population ratio to ensure speedy trials.
- Psychological counselling and better conditions of child protection centres as lot of sexual exploitation occurs in these places.
- There is a strong need to take strict measures to bring an end to trafficking of children so that these children can get proper education.