- With increasing population, overexploitation of resources have put them on brink of exhaustion. In this context, elaborate how oceanic resources can fulfill supply gaps created by exhaustion of terrestrial resources. (15 marks)
- For empowerment and inclusivity of differently abled, there is urgent need of political empowerment of this section, and draft disability policy is a step in this direction. Elaborate (10 marks)
Q1. With increasing population, overexploitation of resources have put them on brink of exhaustion. In this context, elaborate how oceanic resources can fulfill supply gaps created by exhaustion of terrestrial resources. 15 marks
- Post industrial revolution, fossil fuels and minerals have been exploited unsustainably which has shifted attention to oceanic resources. Oceans are vast treasures of biotic and abiotic resources.
- Oceanic resources which can complement those on land include-
- Food resources- Fishes, common salt, seaweeds and kelp are some of food items extracted from oceans and have daily uses. Fishing banks like Dogger bank, North Sea and Southern sea are famous world over.
- Mineral resources- Deposits like hydrogenous, biogenous and terrigenous found in continental shelf and pelagic layer. They are a source of manganese nodules, red clay, sulphur etc.
- Renewable energy in the form of wind energy, tidal energy and oceanic thermal energy conversion can fulfill energy demand of littoral states.
- Fuel is extracted from sea bed like petroleum in Bombay high and Sunda shelf, and gas in Caspian Sea and KG basin.
- Desalination plants to address water scarcity.
- Tourism as a resource can be further tapped in for employment and revenue generation.
- But oceanic resources exploitation comes with many challenges like-
- Huge cost of exploration of energy which further escalates into high cost of power.
- Technology and machinery availability to tap these resources is not aptly available to developing nations.
- Unsustainable fishing by developed nations in their foreign territories adds to unbalanced fishing and affects ecological balance.
- Ocean boundary conflicts as in South China sea, Russia-Japan in Kuril islands and India-Sri Lanka issue etc.
- Climate change which puts coral reefs at risk thus affecting largest carbon sinks and habitat of many marine organisms.
- Many countries are still not a party to UNCLOS.
- For many of these challenges, global cooperation is the need of the hour for sustainable exploitation of resources. There is a need to synergise organisations like International Seabed Authority, UN Convention on Laws Of Seas, International Tribunal for Laws Of Seas etc for better functioning.
Q2. For empowerment and inclusivity of differently abled, there is urgent need of political empowerment of this section, and draft disability policy is a step in this direction. Elaborate 10 marks
- National policy on persons with disability came in 2006 which was formulated in line with Incheon principles. It focuses on inclusivity and empowerment of the disabled in fields like education, employment, health, sports etc. To make amends, recently another draft policy was released by the ministry of social justice and empowerment.
- Main provisions of the draft policy include-
- provisions are there for modification of personal vehicles to be used by differently abled persons.
- A comprehensive national program for disability prevention covering disabilities and medical conditions that can be prevented.
- Medical courses to have a mandatory module on disability.
- States and UTs to comply with the act when granting permits and recognizing educational institutions in line with the Sugamya Bharat or Accessible India campaign.
- Issues in political empowerment of PwD in India-
- There are reports of inaccessibility during elections due to lack of availability of election related materials for example braille EVMs.
- There is a dearth of updated data on PwDs in a particular constituency which affects decision making.
- Parties manifesto doesn’t include interests of PwDs and thus they are excluded from policy making as well.
- They are excluded from political arena like meagre representation at all levels and inaccessible voting process. This is due to lack of appropriate campaigning arrangements and public apathy.
- There is hardly any promotion of PwD role models. First disabled MP Sadhan Gupta is lost in oblivion and hardly anyone knows about him
- There is an urgent need for political empowerment of PwDs to ensure we are committed to article 29 of the UN convention of Rights of PwDs. Some local initiatives like Chhattisgarh initiative of nominating minimum 1 PwD in each panchayat is a stp in this regard. In case PwD isn’t elected, then a nomination of PwD panchayat members is done.